Participle clauses

Participle clauses

Do you know how to use participle clauses to say information in a more economical way? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how participle clauses are used.

Looked after carefully, these boots will last for many years.
Not wanting to hurt his feelings, I avoided the question. 
Having lived through difficult times together, they were very close friends.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Grammar B1-B2: Participle clauses: 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Participle clauses enable us to say information in a more economical way. They are formed using present participles (going, reading, seeing, walking, etc.), past participles (gone, read, seen, walked, etc.) or perfect participles (having gone, having read, having seen, having walked, etc.). 

We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example,

Waiting for Ellie, I made some tea. (While I was waiting for Ellie, I made some tea.)

Participle clauses do not have a specific tense. The tense is indicated by the verb in the main clause. 

Participle clauses are mainly used in written texts, particularly in a literary, academic or journalistic style. 

Present participle clauses

Here are some common ways we use present participle clauses. Note that present participles have a similar meaning to active verbs. 

  • To give the result of an action
    The bomb exploded, destroying the building.
  • To give the reason for an action
    Knowing she loved reading, Richard bought her a book.
  • To talk about an action that happened at the same time as another action
    Standing in the queue, I realised I didn't have any money.
  • To add information about the subject of the main clause
    Starting in the new year, the new policy bans cars in the city centre.

Past participle clauses

Here are some common ways that we use past participle clauses. Note that past participles normally have a passive meaning.

  • With a similar meaning to an if condition
    Used in this way, participles can make your writing more concise. (If you use participles in this way, … )
  • To give the reason for an action
    Worried by the news, she called the hospital.
  • To add information about the subject of the main clause
    Filled with pride, he walked towards the stage.

Perfect participle clauses

Perfect participle clauses show that the action they describe was finished before the action in the main clause. Perfect participles can be structured to make an active or passive meaning.

Having got dressed, he slowly went downstairs.
Having finished their training, they will be fully qualified doctors.
Having been made redundant, she started looking for a new job.

Participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions

It is also common for participle clauses, especially with -ing, to follow conjunctions and prepositions such as before, after, instead of, on, since, when, while and in spite of.

Before cooking, you should wash your hands. 
Instead of complaining about it, they should try doing something positive.
On arriving at the hotel, he went to get changed.
While packing her things, she thought about the last two years.
In spite of having read the instructions twice, I still couldn’t understand how to use it.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Grammar B1-B2: Participle clauses: 2

Language level

Average: 4.2 (81 votes)

Hello karewingwong,

This is a reduced relative clause. The full version is '... lack access to electricity, which forces them to spend ...'. Although our defining relative clauses page only explains the simplest ways of reducing relative clauses, you might find it useful to read through it.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Rox4090 on Fri, 31/08/2018 - 16:07

Hi, A substantial number of students who took part in the canteen's survey said they would be more likely to do this if the canteen offered more healthy food. In this sentence, the writer used ‘ who’ after students. Maybe , the writer could write like this: ‘students taking part’ . How about this? Another sentence: A survey conducted recently by students suggested that many are happy with the food on offer but the canteen staff say that the profit from these would make it possible to offer a more varied and thus healthier selection or at least to provide some kind of 'traffic light' system to guide students towards a healthier balance of foods. It is about past participle guess. The writer wrote: The survey conducted... This one I guess: the survey which has been conducted recently. Please reply. Regards Rox4090
Profile picture for user Kirk Moore

Submitted by Kirk Moore on Sat, 01/09/2018 - 10:08

In reply to by Rox4090


Hello Rox4090,

In answer to your first question, yes, that would be fine. Your rewording of the second sentence is also possible and is correct as well.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team


Submitted by SonuKumar on Mon, 27/08/2018 - 11:07

Sir, She faced every problem arised or arising in her life. She faced every problem come or coming in her life. and what if I wrote these sentences in present tense or future tense, would there be a present participle (coming or arising) or a past participle (come or arised) in these sentences ?
Profile picture for user Kirk Moore

Submitted by Kirk Moore on Mon, 27/08/2018 - 19:07

In reply to by SonuKumar


Hi SonuKumar,

The past participle doesn't work here -- only the present participle is possible (e.g. 'She faced every problem arising in her life'). That said, it would be much more natural to say 'She faced every problem that arose in her life' -- participle clauses are relatively rare in most writing and speaking.

I'd also recommend a relative clause to speak about the present or future.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Mdanesh on Mon, 13/08/2018 - 16:33

Can we use participle with future tense? For example, plying football for several hours, I will be tired. Is this sentence make sense?

Hello Mdanesh,

Yes, that sentence is fine. Participles are non-finite verb forms so they have no inherent time reference. They take their time reference from the other verbs around them, or from the context.



The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by qayum2s on Mon, 30/07/2018 - 11:08

Hello both Mr.Kirk and Peter M, Based on your policy, you are not commenting on any tex if they both constructed or punctuated well, but please look at my email whether it is understandable or not. "Dear Sir, I hope you are doing well. Unusually, since we have been encountered some financial crisis, we are not able to reimburse our cement's, gravel's, and fuel's supplier on their due dates; consequently, there will l be a likely shortage in supplying raw material(cement, gravel, and fuel.) In order not to face any failures in providing concrete, you are softly requested to pay off your due accounts as soon as it is possible. I hope again not to be indignant by this email." Best regards, Account Officer, Qayum Shah

Hi Qayum,

Yes, I had no trouble understanding this message. Well done!

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by ABDO HASSAN on Thu, 26/07/2018 - 21:29

They say having him as both weakens the board's oversight of management. Here what is the meaning of (having )? My mind confuses when I read or hear sentences include( having)