Active and passive voice
Transitive verbs have both active and passive forms:
|The hunter killed the lion.||>||The lion was killed by the hunter.|
|Someone has cleaned the windows.||>||The windows have been cleaned.|
|English||is||spoken||all over the world.|
|The windows||have been||cleaned.|
|The work||will be||finished||soon.|
|They||might have been||invited||to the party.|
If we want to show the person or thing doing the action, we use by:
She was attacked by a dangerous dog.
The money was stolen by her husband.
- Active and passive voice 1
- Active and passive voice 2
- Active and passive voice 3
The passive infinitive is made up of to be with a past participle:
The doors are going to be locked at ten o'clock.
You shouldn't have done that. You ought to be punished.
We sometimes use the verb get with a past participle to form the passive:
Be careful with that glass. It might get broken.
Peter got hurt in a crash.
We can use the indirect object as the subject of a passive verb:
|I gave him a book for his birthday.||>||He was given a book for his birthday.|
|Someone sent her a cheque for a thousand euros.||>||
She was sent a cheque for a thousand euros.
We can use phrasal verbs in the passive:
|They called off the meeting.||>||The meeting was called off.|
|His grandmother looked after him.||>||He was looked after by his grandmother.|
|They will send him away to school.||>||He will be sent away to school.|
- Active and passive voice 4
- Active and passive voice 5
Some verbs which are very frequently used in the passive are followed by the to-infinitive:
|be supposed to||be expected to||be asked to||be told to|
|be scheduled to||be allowed to||be invited to||be ordered to|
John has been asked to make a speech at the meeting.
You are supposed to wear a uniform.
The meeting is scheduled to start at seven.