Conditionals 1

Do you know how to use the zero, first and second conditionals?

Look at these examples to see how zero, first and second conditionals are used.

If you freeze water, it becomes solid.
If it rains tomorrow, I'll take the car.
If I lived closer to the cinema, I would go more often.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If you study hard) and the main clause tells you the result (you will pass your exams). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If you study hard, you will pass your exams.
You will pass your exams if you study hard.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Zero conditional

We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are generally true, especially for laws and rules.

If I drink too much coffee, I can't sleep at night.
Ice melts if you heat it.
When the sun goes down, it gets dark.

The structure is: if/when + present simple >> present simple.

First conditional

We use the first conditional when we talk about future situations we believe are real or possible.

If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.
Arsenal will be top of the league if they win.
When I finish work, I'll call you.

In first conditional sentences, the structure is usually: if/when + present simple >> will + infinitive. 

It is also common to use this structure with unless, as long as, as soon as or in case instead of if.

I'll leave as soon as the babysitter arrives.
I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.
I'll give you a key in case I'm not at home.
You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight.

Second conditional

The second conditional is used to imagine present or future situations that are impossible or unlikely in reality.

If we had a garden, we could have a cat.
If I won a lot of money, I'd buy a big house in the country.
I wouldn't worry if I were you.

The structure is usually: if + past simple >> + would + infinitive. 

When if is followed by the verb be, it is grammatically correct to say if I were, if he were, if she were and if it were. However, it is also common to hear these structures with was, especially in the he/she form.

If I were you, I wouldn't mention it.
If she was prime minister, she would invest more money in schools.
He would travel more if he was younger.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 2

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Language level

B1 English level (intermediate)

Hello khalid ibrahim,

As you say, we generally use a modal verb in the main clause of real/likely future conditional sentences. Typically, this is will:

If I see Susan, I'll invite her to the party.

However, other modal verbs than will can be used:

If you see Susan, you should invite her to the party.

If he sees Susan, he can invite her to the party.

Your second sentence is an example of this. You could use a different modal verb in place of can, such as may.


Your first example is a little different. There are some verbs which describe our beliefs about the future which can be used in this way. We use a present form because we are describing our present views on a situation, not the result of a condition. Verbs used commonly in this way include want, expect, hope, fear and believe:

I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.

I don't expect to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.

I don't hope to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.

I believe him, unless there is proof he's lying.

I fear for the future unless we change our way of living.



The LearnEnglish Team 

Submitted by patph0510 on Fri, 19/06/2020 - 17:18

Hello teacher, I would like to know whether the following sentences convey different meanings: 1. If I eat dairy products, I get red spots on my skin. vs If I eat dairy products, I will get red spots on my skin 2. If the weather is nice, Mary walks to work. vs If the weather is nice, Mary is going to walk to work. Thank you. Pat

Hello patph0510,

The answer to your question is on the page above. Look at the explanations for zero and first conditionals and apply them to your examples. This should answer your question for you.



The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks for your reply. Actually I am still a bit confused as to the difference between the two after reading the explanation above. Could I say that Zero Conditional refers to a general situation while Conditional One refers to a specific situation? For example: 1. If I eat dairy products, I get red spots on my skin. --> this sentence tells us about a general truth about the speaker. 2. If I eat dairy products, I will get red spots on my skin --> this sentence is about a specific situation; the speaker may be telling a waiter about his food allergies before ordering food

Submitted by Ira92 on Thu, 18/06/2020 - 21:35

hi. could you please tell me in the sentence below which type of conditionals has been used and And what did the speaker mean? "if someone told me a week ago that I would be painting I wouldn’t believe."

Hello Ira92,

The sentence is not entirely grammatical. You need to add an object after believe:

If someone told me a week ago that I would be painting I wouldn’t believe it/them.


However, the sentence is still not correct in terms of standard grammar. The form is [if + past simple > (then) would verb], sometimes called a second conditional. This is used to talk about unlikely or impossible (unreal) situations in the present or future. However, this sentence refers to an unreal past as it contains the phrase a week ago. This is inconsistent. To make the sentence consistent you should use a past perfect in the first clause:

If someone had told me a week ago that I would be painting I wouldn’t believe it/them.

The second clause is fine as it describes an unreal present result of that unreal past situation.



The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Remember on Thu, 28/05/2020 - 11:23

Hi, People get upset if I let them down. People get upset if I'd let them down. Which is correct and why? I'll appreciate your feedback on this one. Thanks and greetings
Profile picture for user Kirk

Submitted by Kirk on Thu, 28/05/2020 - 15:12

In reply to by Remember


Hello Remember

The first sentence is a correct zero conditional statement; the second is not correct. But you could make a first conditional ('People will get upset if I let them down') or second conditional ('People would get upset if I let them down') by changing the verb forms. 

Note that the past simple of the verb 'let' is 'let', i.e. it doesn't change form in the past simple.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Simonedemelis on Sun, 10/05/2020 - 15:47

Why these sentences doesn't follow the usual structure of the first conditional? I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job. You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight. Thanks.

Submitted by Lobna Tarek on Wed, 29/04/2020 - 15:09

So we can use other modal verbs than (will) for the first conditional and other modals than (would) for the second conditionals , right? What about the sentence ( I don't want to stay in London as long as I don't get a well-paid job) ? This is a first conditional sentence and no modals are used. And in the sentence ( you can get a key if I'm not at home ) , is (can) used here instead of ( will ) to express specific ability in the future? Thanks and waiting for your response.

Hello Lobna Tarek,

Not all conditional sentences contain modal verbs. So-called zero conditionals contain normal finite (present) verbs in each clause, for example.


I don't think your first example is a well-formed sentence. We would use either unless or if to form the sentence rather than as long as:

I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.

I don't want to stay in London if I don't get a well-paid job.

The result clause here describes a present emotional state rather than a future action. You can contrast it with this:

I won't stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.

I won't stay in London if I don't get a well-paid job.


In your second example can probably describes specific ability in the future, though you could have a context in which it describes a general truth - something which is always possible because of the way the house or flat is organised, rather than being a particular situation on a particular day.



The LearnEnglish Team

Profile picture for user OlaIELTS

Submitted by OlaIELTS on Thu, 23/04/2020 - 15:14

It's very helpful.

Submitted by Mouha++ on Tue, 21/04/2020 - 23:34

Hello Teachers I want to know the difference between the use of first conditional and zero conditional in question sentences. Does it obey to the same rules as affirmative or negative sentence ? For example which of these sentences is correct : What happens if we arrive late at the cinema ? What will happen if we arrive late at the cinema ? Thanks

Hello Mouha++,

Both sentences are grammatically correct. Note that these are examples of subject questions in which the question word (what) is the subject of the verb. You could also make object questions:

What does the usher do if we arrive late at the cinema?

What will the usher do if we arrive late at the cinema?




The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Deviljin on Sat, 11/04/2020 - 15:27

Hello Teachers. Which one is correct: 1. If you are going to market, bring me a pen. 2. If you go to market, bring me a pen. If both are correct, what is the difference in meaning. 2nd boubt: My friend told me that, in Ist conditional, we can use any tense in condition/result clause as the requirement. It this correct.

Hello Deviljin

Both of those are grammatically correct. The exact meaning depends on the context, as the continuous aspect (here 'are going' is continuous) can express many different meanings. If you follow the link, you'll see some examples.

Your friend is right in thinking that many different tenses are possible with 'if', but I'm not sure I'd say any tense works anywhere. If you have any other specific sentences you want to ask about, please feel free.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Swati on Fri, 10/04/2020 - 12:27

Hi, my query is why this answer is wrong? You don't need to print your tickets as long as you'll have the email. I used first conditional structure. Plz help and clarify my doubt why the answer is 'you have the email' not you'll have the email.

Hello Swati,

As long as performs a similar function to if in this structure, and it is followed by a present form, just as in the if-clause of a first conditional. If you want to use a modal verb like will then it should be in the other clause:

You won't need to print your tickets as long as you have the email.



The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks Peter M sir. I am glad that I got the response and it's cleared my doubt. My English is not so good but is site is very helpful. Thanks

Submitted by Gloria Pérez on Fri, 03/04/2020 - 22:39

Thank you very much Kirk. It helps me a lot ;-)!

Submitted by Lal on Fri, 03/04/2020 - 06:47

Hello Sir Are these sentences grammatically correct? When I have finished work, I will call you. When I finish work I will call you. Thank you. Regards Lal

Hello Lal

Yes, both are correct (well done!) and they mean the same thing.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team


Submitted by adawi on Thu, 02/04/2020 - 11:05

Hello, I have a question regarding the second conditional. I wonder whether it is grammatically OK to say I was instead of I were? Thanks.
Profile picture for user Kirk

Submitted by Kirk on Thu, 02/04/2020 - 14:01

In reply to by adawi


Hello adawl

Yes, that is correct. You can say 'were' with any pronoun and 'was' with 'I', 'he', 'she' or 'it'. 

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Gloria Pérez on Mon, 30/03/2020 - 13:28

A new doubt. This time about the first conditional: We have studied different ways of expressing future apart from using "will": present continuous, to be going to, may, might... Of course, these forms involve different nuances from "will" in terms of likehood (ranging from 100% certainty to remote posibility). With this in mind, how likely it is that the result happens if the condition occurs, can we use these other forms of future in the first conditional too?? Examples: "If I get some days off next week... - ... I am visiting my grandma" (or "I will definitively visit my grandma") ? - ... I am going to visit my grandma (or "I will most likely visit my grandma")? - ... I may visit my grandma (or "maybe I will visit my grandma")? Thank you very much again for your help to clear this.

Hello again Gloria

Yes, you can use other ways of speaking about the future or possible actions in the second clause -- your clauses with 'will definitely', 'will most likely', 'maybe I will', 'I am going to visit' and 'I may visit' are all correct.

It would perhaps be a little unusual to use the present simple for a timetabled event or the present continuous for an arranged event (since presumably we don't make arrangements for events we aren't sure we can perform), but it is certainly possible to use them if they accurately reflect what you mean.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Gloria Pérez on Mon, 30/03/2020 - 12:56

A doubt about conditional zero: I see that the structure if/when past simple >> past simple can not be used. Therefore, the following sentences must be wrong: "When I was a child... - ... my father used to tell me off when/if I got late home" or - ... I had to study in summer if/when I didn't pass my exams in June". If so, is they are wrong, would the right ones be as following?: "When I was a child... - "... my father used to tell me off If/when I had got home late" - "... I had to study in summer if/when I hadn't passed my exams in June" Thank you very much in advance for heping me to clarify this point.

Hello Gloria

For the sake of simplicity, just one zero conditional structure is provided on this page. But, as you have discovered, that doesn't mean that other combinations do not exist. As you have done, it is perfectly correct to use past tense to speak about past situations. The past perfect versions you wrote are also correct, though most of the time people would use the simpler versions.

Textbooks and teachers often use the terms 'zero', 'first', 'second' and 'third' conditional to refer to common patterns to help students recognise and produce them, but they are not really proper grammatical categories and do not describe all possible forms.

I hope this helps you.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Bharati on Sun, 23/02/2020 - 09:22

Hello, Isn't it a matter of individual perception to understand the use of "will" in a sentence to be conveying either a present tiime or future time when no specific future time is given. Example: He will always/never be grateful (Here the time could be cosidered to be starting from present continuinh upto future) Thanks

Submitted by Bharati on Sat, 22/02/2020 - 13:24

Thanks Peter My doubt about the example sentence given by me remains as you assume that if it rains depicts future whereas it (rain) can be assumed to happen in present time also. Even the result clause (i will use an umbrella) can happen in present besides the future possibility of rain. Please clarify. I have no doubt about zero conditional example given by you. Thanks

Hello Bharati,

In your example, the speaker has not taken the umbrella at the time of speaking. Therefore, the action must be in the future, relative to the time of speaking.



The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Peter, Thanks for explaining. So, do we take that first conditional always talks about future and not about present also as understood by me. In the example, "if you drop the glass, it will break"what times are referred by the if clause and the consequence clause. Thanks

Hello Bharati,

Generally, the result clause of a first conditional structure has a future time reference. However, you can also use will to describe typical behaviour or consequences, especially when you want to point out to someone that they should have known something, or should not have been surprised about something. For example:

I can't believe my car has broken down again!

Well, if you don't service cars they will break down. What do you expect?

Here, the speaker is talking about the typical behaviour of cars, not a specific single action in the future.


Your sentence about the glass could, in the right context be read either way. I don't think your earlier example about umbrellas could, however, as the speaker then was referring to him/herself and a particular situation rather than predicting his/her own typical behaviour.



The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks Peter, What time(present/future) does the following if clause and the result clause refer:- If you move, i will hit you If you pay me, i will work longer

Hello Bharati

The 'if' clauses refer to hypothetical future actions -- i.e. they may happen or they may not -- and the result clauses speak about actions after those hypothetical future actions.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Bharati on Sat, 22/02/2020 - 04:11

Modals plus present perfect are generally used for past time. But based on context, it can represent present time also. For example -Where is John? He must have gone out. This answer is similar to present perfect meaning "He has gone out" which has relation with present timeline as per definition of present perfect

Hello Bharati,

Perfect modal verbs describe past actions, though they may have a present relevance.

The present perfect in your example describes a past action (going out) which has a present relevance (he is not here now).

The perfect modal has a similar function. If we say He must have gone out then we are describing a past action (going out) with a present result (he is not here).


In terms of terminology, the modal is not followed by the present perfect, but by a perfect infinitive. Modals can be followed by various forms of the infinitive:

He must tell us. [infinitive]

He must be told. [passive infinitive]

He must have told us. [perfect infinitive]

He must be working. [continuous infinitive]




The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Bharati on Sat, 22/02/2020 - 04:06

First conditional sentences are said to be talking about future whereas some explain that it can be about present or future which appears more logical to me Example-If it rains, i will use an umbrella. Here besides future possibility of rain to happen, it can also be understood as if it rains in the present moment, i will use an umbrella in the present time. So it can represent present time also

Hello Bharati,

The modal verb will can be used for predictions (guesses, expectations) about the future or the present, and so the result clause in these conditional constructions can indeed refer to the present as well as the future. For example:

If Susan called then John will already be at the hospital.


The particular example you choose, however, does refer to the future in both clauses:

If it rains (at some point in the future), I will use an umbrella (as a consequence of the rain).


If we were making a general statement about our normal behaviour in certain situations then we would use a present verb in both clauses:

If it rains, I use an umbrella.



The LearnEnglish Team

Hello, Your own example sentence in the First conditional explanation "I don't want to stay in London, unless i get a well-paid job"can be a good example of first conditional describing about present time rather than future. Hope you agree. Thanks