Transitive verbs have both active and passive forms:
|The hunter killed the lion.
|The lion was killed by the hunter.
|Someone has cleaned the windows.
|The windows have been cleaned.
|all over the world.
|might have been
|to the party.
If we want to show the person or thing doing the action, we use by:
She was attacked by a dangerous dog.
The money was stolen by her husband.
- Active and passive voice 1
- Active and passive voice 2
- Active and passive voice 3
The passive infinitive is made up of to be with a past participle:
The doors are going to be locked at ten o'clock.
You shouldn't have done that. You ought to be punished.
We sometimes use the verb get with a past participle to form the passive:
Be careful with that glass. It might get broken.
Peter got hurt in a crash.
We can use the indirect object as the subject of a passive verb:
|I gave him a book for his birthday.
|He was given a book for his birthday.
|Someone sent her a cheque for a thousand euros.
She was sent a cheque for a thousand euros.
We can use phrasal verbs in the passive:
|They called off the meeting.
|The meeting was called off.
|His grandmother looked after him.
|He was looked after by his grandmother.
|They will send him away to school.
|He will be sent away to school.
- Active and passive voice 4
- Active and passive voice 5
Some verbs which are very frequently used in the passive are followed by the to-infinitive:
|be supposed to
|be expected to
|be asked to
|be told to
|be scheduled to
|be allowed to
|be invited to
|be ordered to
John has been asked to make a speech at the meeting.
You are supposed to wear a uniform.
The meeting is scheduled to start at seven.