Past continuous and past simple

Do you know how to use the past continuous and past simple?

Look at these examples to see how the past continuous and past simple are used.

When I woke up this morning, it was snowing.
I was sleeping when you called me.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Past continuous and past simple: Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

The past continuous and the past simple help us to show how two past actions or situations are connected.

Past simple

The past simple shows us that an action was in the past, not in the present. Regular past simple verbs have -ed at the end (e.g. called, played, arrived). Irregular verbs have a different form, usually with a different vowel sound (e.g. wake woke, break broke, feel felt).

My parents called me yesterday.
I woke up early this morning.
Sam played basketball when he was at university.

We make the negative with didn't and the infinitive verb.

My parents didn't call me yesterday.
I didn't wake up early this morning.

We make the question form with did and then the subject and infinitive verb.

Did you wake up early this morning?
Did Sam play basketball when he was at university?

Past continuous

The past continuous shows us that the action was already in progress at a certain time in the past.

What were you doing at 8 p.m. last night? I was studying.

This means that I started studying before 8 p.m. and I continued after 8 p.m.

The past continuous can also show that an activity was in progress for some time, not just for a moment.

We were cleaning the house all morning.

We make the past continuous with was or were and the -ing form of the verb.

She couldn't come to the party. She was working.
Three years ago, we were living in my home town.
I tried to give him some advice, but he wasn't listening.
What were you doing this time last year?

Past continuous and past simple

When we use these two tenses together, it shows us that the past simple action happened in the middle of the past continuous action, while it was in progress.

While I was studying, I suddenly felt sleepy.

We often use these tenses to show an action interrupting another action.

I broke my leg when I was skiing.
As I was going to work, I saw an old friend.
We were watching television when the power went off.

Can you see a difference in the meaning of these two sentences?

When the guests arrived, Jane was cooking dinner.
When the guests arrived, Jane cooked dinner.

In the first one, Jane started cooking dinner before the guests arrived. We know that because it uses the past continuous. In the second sentence, the guests arrived first and then Jane started cooking.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Past continuous and past simple: Grammar test 2

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Hello diidem,

'were already closing' is the correct answer for that sentence. If you press the 'Check answers' button (which becomes 'Show answers' after you press it), it should show that it is the correct answer. I've just checked and that's what it shows when I do it.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Shamsia Shams on Wed, 18/11/2020 - 09:54

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i request from team leader could explain me the difference of past continuous tense or past progressive tense?

Hello Shamsia Shams,

Those are two different names for the same form. Here on LearnEnglish, we use the name 'past continuous'.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Shamsia Shams on Wed, 18/11/2020 - 08:14

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i have joined newly to this course , the contends are interest to me.

Submitted by jakevn on Thu, 05/11/2020 - 14:12

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hello guys, i'm a new user

Submitted by Kamwengv on Tue, 13/10/2020 - 08:43

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She and I were packing the boxes just 8 weeks ago. Is it correct? If yes, then is it because the word “just” indicates more specific period of time in the past?

Hello Kamwengv,

Yes, that sentence is grammatically correct -- it refers to an action in progress in the past. You could also say 'She and I packed the boxes just 8 weeks ago' and it is also correct. The difference is that the first one portrays the action as an action in progress and the second portrays it as a finished action.

The second one is probably more common, but it really depends on the situation the sentence is found in.

Hope this helps.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks Kirk What if there is No “just” in this sentence?! Will it be Only a simple past tense, rite?

Hello again Kamwengv,

No, the verb could still be 'were packing'. If I were describing what my sister and I were spending a lot of time doing together eight weeks ago, then 'She and I were packing the boxes eight weeks ago' would be an appropriate form, for example. In this sentence, I'm kind of imagining all the different moments I spent with my sister at that time, and in many of them, we were packing boxes -- maybe, for example, she was moving house and needed my help.

If I said 'We packed the boxes', that would also be correct, but it wouldn't focus on the time we spent together as much.

Hope this helps.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

It’s hard to imagine when there is a specific “past” time like 8 weeks ago, yesterday, last night! It’s clear to indicate the past time but you try to use different scenarios to advance “on progress” in the past. It sounds to violate the simple past tense concept!

Hello Kamwengv,

The idea of something being 'in progress' is that it began before and was interrupted by another event before it was completed. For example:

I read a magazine. John arrived.

These are three sequential events which happen one after the other.

I was reading a book. John arrived.

Here, I was in the middle of reading the magazine when John arrived; his arrival interrupted my reading, which was not finished.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Kamwengv on Tue, 13/10/2020 - 08:36

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How come it happened for the above example Three years ago, we were living in our home town. There is a specific time mentioned. It should be a simple past tense rather than past continuous tense. Please advise!

Submitted by Turki123456 on Fri, 09/10/2020 - 17:45

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1-He (studied / was studying) from 5 to 8 2-he (worked / was working) all day yesterday *if we removed *yesterday * would it be the same? 3-he (walked / was walking) for two hours 4-he (worked / was working) all + night or any period of time. 5- the baby (slept / was sleeping) peacefully through the night. I know that the PP Usually gets interrupted by another action,and we need more context to decide,but what about these sentences can we use both or just one over another ?

Hello Turki123456,

In 1, 2, 3 and 4 both forms are possible -- as you suggest, one or the other would be better depending on the meaning or context. Without the word 'yesterday', both forms are also possible in 2.

In 5, I'd say 'was sleeping' would not be correct because 'through the night' implies that the period is already over and I can't imagine a situation in which the form would make sense. Perhaps there is some context when it could work, but I can't think of one off the top of my head!

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Another question sir. When we use time clauses (until,after,before,as soon as),we only use past simple and not past progressive? (Examples): 1-before I went to bed,I finished my homework 2-i went to bed after I finished my home work 3-i stayed up until I finished my homework 4-yesterday i slept until 9pm.it felt amazing (can’t we say here i was sleeping or because we have *until* and it must be past simple. Thank you in advance sir.

Hello Turki123456,

If you mean the verb inside the time clauses, that sounds like a good general rule, especially with 'before' and 'until', but I don't think it's always true. For example, 'Before I was brushing my teeth, I was talking on the phone'. That's a rather unusual sentence, but it's grammatically possible.

Remember also that there are many other tenses that are possible in such time clauses (e.g. present simple, present perfect, past perfect).

Hope this helps.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by lv_2020 on Tue, 06/10/2020 - 23:45

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Hello!! I have one doubt when using the simple past and past continuous when is doesn't mean an action interrupting the other. In the sentence: When I _________ (finish) the book, I ______ (cry), can I use both? 1) When I was finishing the book, I cried; 2) When I finished the book, I was crying. I think both are correct, but their meaning are slighty different, is this analysis right? Same for: I ________(study) when my mother __________ (cook) dinner. Could I use: 1) I was studying when my mother cooked dinner or 2) I studied when my mother was cooking dinner? thks

Submitted by Kirk on Wed, 07/10/2020 - 06:40

In reply to by lv_2020

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Hello Iv_2020,

Yes, you're right in thinking that the meaning is different. In fact, there are two more possible forms:

3) finished, cried
4) was finishing, was crying

Strictly speaking, all four of them are possible, but 1 would be unusual because it suggests that you cried for a brief time while you were finishing the book but had stopped crying when you finished. 

The most common combination here is 3, which suggests that you finished the book and then started to cry (and cried for a little bit).

For the other set of sentences, again, different forms are possible and the best one depends on what you mean.

Hope this helps.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by nadaqattan on Sat, 03/10/2020 - 17:22

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Hiii. This is Nada. I have a question about using "while". One of the textbooks I'm teaching now says that the simple past can be used with while like: "He was enjoying himself while the FBI searched for him." Is this sentence correct? Many Thanks

Hi Nada,

Yes, that's perfectly fine. You can use the simple form after while and in some contexts it is more common.

It may be helpful to contrast two versions of your sentence:

He was enjoying himself while the FBI searched for him.

This could suggest that the search happened during the dtime he was having fun. It's not entirely clear, and the context would be important.

He enjoyed himself while the FBI was searching for him.

Here, the enjoyment happens within the time of the search.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by nadaqattan on Mon, 05/10/2020 - 15:23

In reply to by Peter M.

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Thanks Peter. I appreciate it.

Submitted by dnna on Mon, 14/09/2020 - 23:26

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Hello sir, there is a sentence in my textbook: "Frank was constantly asking for money last year when he WAS still out of work", our English teacher ask us why they use WAS but not WAS BEING. I am stuck with this. Could you please tell me? Thank you.

Hello dnna,

The verb 'be' is a stative verb and is very rarely used in the continuous, so the present simple is used here.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Aymen Aouali on Thu, 03/09/2020 - 23:17

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I was not know that we can use tow past continuous verbs in the same sentences.

Submitted by fadi.kazan on Wed, 02/09/2020 - 09:30

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Hi, The last time I saw her, she ( was driving - drove ) a red car. What is the correct answer?

Submitted by Kirk on Wed, 02/09/2020 - 13:28

In reply to by fadi.kazan

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Hello fadi.kazan,

In most situations, 'was driving' would be the correct form here. The idea is that if we saw her behind the wheel, she was probably in the process of driving at that point, and so the continuous form is the appropriate one.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Linhhh on Sun, 30/08/2020 - 09:31

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What's wrong with saying "they already closed the shop when I got there"? I don't see anything wrong with the grammar.

Hello Linhhh,

The times that 'already' and 'when I got there' refer to are incongruous. 'already' implies that they closed the shop before you got there, and so then it's strange to say 'when I got there', which says the closing and your arrival happened at the same time.

You could say 'They had already closed the shop when I got there' (or 'The shop was closed when I got there') or 'They closed the shop when I got there', though note these mean slightly different things.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Sir, i want to ask a question. Is it possible for me to say "They closed the shop when i got there."?

Submitted by Arcasso on Fri, 14/08/2020 - 10:36

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Hello Sir. I have a problem. In many student's books in my country is written that after "when" is always Past Simple !!! However I've seen a lot of examples that it's not - "I broke my leg when I was skiing." What do you think? My next question - can we say: When I broke my leg, I was skiing. or When I was skiing, I broke my leg. Thanks for your answer.

Hi Arcasso,

Yes! After when we can use various tenses, not just past simple. I'm not sure why those books suggest only using past simple, but other tenses are definitely possible.

About your other question, yes – both versions are fine. But there is a difference in their focus. When introduces a background action. So, if you say When I broke my leg, I was skiing, breaking my leg is the background, and skiing is the focus (i.e. the speaker's main topic). The speaker would probably continue talking about skiing (not breaking my leg). If you say When I was skiing, I broke my leg, breaking my leg is the focus.

Best wishes,

Jonathan

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Rafaela1 on Tue, 04/08/2020 - 13:37

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I was watching TV, when an earthquake hit. :0

Submitted by manu on Mon, 03/08/2020 - 01:13

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1) Mr. Peter had two sons. Does this mean Mr. Peter is alive and he lost his two sons (or) Mr. Peter is dead and is survived by two sons. 2) If Peter has 5 siblings and 3 of them passed away. should it be a) Peter has 5 siblings and only 2 of them alive, or b) Peter had 5 siblings and only 2 of them alive.

Hello manu,

Your first example really depends on the context. All we can say from the sentence is that the man no longer has two sons. He may be dead or his sons may be dead; we do not know.

 

In your second example, had is the normal choice. When a person has died we generally no longer speak of them with present tenses. Thus, a person might say that they had a child (if the child is dead), or that they were married (if they are now divorced or widowed).

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by VegitoBlue on Sun, 19/07/2020 - 09:42

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Hi, Concerning the usage of both tenses together, quoting from the article above: "When we use these two tenses together, it shows us that the past simple action happened in the middle of the past continuous action, while it was in progress. Example - While I was studying, I suddenly felt sleepy. We often use these tenses to show an action interrupting another action. Example - I broke my leg when I was skiing." Does this mean that the simple past action must occur exactly at the midpoint of the longer action expressed by present continuous (for example (let's say the skiing occurred from 10 to 11 AM, and the breaking of leg occurred exactly at 10:55AM), can I still say "I broke my leg when I was skiing"? of is it a case where "I broke my leg when I was skiing" only applies if the "skiing occurred from 10 to 11 AM, and the breaking of leg occurred exactly at 10:30AM - midpoint of the action of skiing"? Also, other than a simple past action interrupting the past continuous, can a timing, instead of an action in the simple past, also interrupt the past continuous action, e.g. "Last night at 8pm, I was studying" - to mean that I started studying before 8 p.m. and I continued after 8 p.m? Also, if timing serves as the interruption instead of a simple past action, must the timing be the exact mid point of the interrupted action?

Submitted by Kirk on Sun, 19/07/2020 - 15:22

In reply to by VegitoBlue

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Hello VegitoBlue,

The past simple action takes place at any time during the past continuous action, not at the exact midpoint.

You are also right in thinking that another time reference that is not the past simple can 'interrupt' the past continuous action. It doesn't have to be at the exact midpoint -- it can be at any time during that period of time.

One of the possible meanings of the continuous aspect is that of duration in time, so you can refer to a point or even period of time within that using some kind of time reference, which includes phrases such as 'at 8pm' or 'When she arrived' (and many others).

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Kirk, you mentioned that "One of the possible meanings of the continuous aspect is that of duration in time, so you can refer to a point or even period of time within that using some kind of time reference" - I'm afraid I don't quite get what you mean. Could you kindly explain further? Also, by point in time, are you referring to time references such as "I was studying at 8pm (point in time being 'at 8pm' which interrupts the past continuous action of 'I was studying')" or "I was bathing when she arrived (point in time being 'when she arrived' which interrupts the past continuous action of 'I was bathing')" ? Lastly, could you cite examples involving "period of time"? Thank you.

Hello VegitoBlue,

An example of a point in time would be 'at 8pm', as in the example you gave, though I wouldn't say that 'at 8pm' 'interrupts' 'I was studying'. The way I'd recommend thinking of it is that a continuous action was occurring, and 'at 8pm' refers to one point during that period. Your analysis of the sentence about bathing looks good to me.

Note that 'a point in time' can be many different things. For example, in a text about financial markets in the early 21st century, a sentence like 'Stock prices dropped precipitously in 2008' uses 'in 2008' as a point of time. But 'in 2008' can also be a period of time -- in a sentence such as 'He started five different jobs in 2008', for example, 'in 2008' refers to the course of a year. 

The other parts of a text and especially the verb forms tell you whether 'in 2008' refers to a point in time or a period of time.

In a sentence like 'In the early 1990s, I was studying medicine in Birmingham', there is a reference to a larger period of time ('in the early 1990s') and another shorter period of time within it ('I was studying medicine').

Hope this clear it all up for you.

All the best,

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Dilnoza Sulaymonova on Fri, 12/06/2020 - 11:53

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thanks a lot

Submitted by Lal on Tue, 19/05/2020 - 14:28

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Hello Sir A. Is that fresh bread I smell ?. B. Yes, your mother has been baking all morning. Referring to 'B' can't we say " had been baking all morning" Please let me know Thank you. Regards Lal

Hello Lal,

Since there is a present result (the smell), the present perfect is most appropriate here. Although the context is limited, the past perfect does not make sense in the sentence as it stands.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Epardolez on Sat, 02/05/2020 - 22:27

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Thanks a lot! Greetings from Chile.

Submitted by Elaine20 on Sat, 02/05/2020 - 06:33

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Hi the learnEngish team, In the Grammar test 2, Q5, could you explain why the answer is "were already closing" ? I thought the answer is "already closed", because of the shop is closed, they didn't buy anything. Does it make sense?

Hi Elaine20,

It is possible to use a past form in this sentence, but we would use a past perfect:

...they had already closed...

The past simple does not work with 'already' in this context. You could make the sentence without 'already' (...they closed the shop when I arrived), but that would have a strange meaning. It would suggest that they waited until you arrived and then closed the shop because they didn't like you for some reason!

Out of the two answers possible, were already closing is the correct answer. It tells us that they were already in the process of closing the shop - clearing out the last customers, emptying the tills, turning off the lights etc - when you arrived, so you couldn't buy anything.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Reza on Tue, 28/04/2020 - 14:17

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Hi, Could please tell me which sentence (s) is correct: 1- We were playing football between 4 and 5 pm yesterday. 2- We played football between 4 and 5 pm yesterday. 3- We were playing football for an hour yesterday. 4- We played football for an hour yesterday. Thanks

Submitted by Kirk on Tue, 28/04/2020 - 14:30

In reply to by Reza

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Hello Reza

They could all be correct in specific contexts, though 3 is a bit strange.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Jo Ann on Tue, 28/04/2020 - 11:35

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Hello there, Can one also come across a Past simple tense question that has to be changed into Present Simple tense. But than nothing needs to be changed cause it's written the same in both present and past simple tense.