Talking about the past
Past events and situations
We use the past simple to talk about:
- something that happened once in the past:
The film started at seven thirty.
We arrived home before dark.
- something that was true for some time in the past:
Everybody worked hard through the winter.
We stayed with our friends in London.
When we talk about something that happened several times in the past, we use the past simple:
Most evenings, we stayed at home and watched DVDs.
Sometimes they went out for a meal.
or used to:
Most evenings, we used to stay at home and watch DVDs.
We used to go for a swim every morning.
Most evenings, he would take the dog for a walk.
They would often visit friends in Europe.
We do not normally use would with stative verbs. We use the past simple or used to instead:
wouldlooked much older than he does now. (NOT would look)
wouldused to feel very cold in winter. (NOT would feel)
- Past simple, used to and would 1
- Past simple, used to and would 2
We use the past continuous:
- for something that happened before and after a specific time in the past:
It was just after ten. I was watching the news on TV.
At half-time we were losing 1–0.
- for something that happened before and after another action in the past:
He broke his leg when he was playing rugby.
She saw Jim as he was driving away.
- Past simple and past continuous 1
- Past simple and past continuous 2
The past in the past
We use the past perfect when we are looking back from a point in the past to something earlier in the past:
Helen suddenly remembered she had left her keys in the car.
When we had done all our shopping, we caught the bus home.
They wanted to buy a new computer, but they hadn't saved enough money.
They would have bought a new computer if they had saved enough money.
- Past simple, continuous and perfect 1
- Past simple, continuous and perfect 2
The past and the present
We use the present perfect:
- for something that started in the past and continues in the present:
We have lived here since 2017. [and we still live here]
I have been working at the university for over ten years.
- for something that happened in the past but is important in the present:
I can't open the door. I've left my keys in the car.
Jenny has found a new job. She works in a supermarket now.
|We do not use the present perfect with adverbials which refer to a finished past time:
but we can use the present perfect with adverbials which refer to a time which is not yet finished:
- Present perfect and past simple 1
- Present perfect and past simple 2
The future in the past
When we talk about the future from a time in the past we use:
- would as the past tense of will:
He thought he would buy one the next day.
Everyone was excited. The party would be fun.
- was/were going to:
John was going to drive and Mary was going to follow on her bicycle.
It was Friday. We were going to set off the next day.
- the past continuous:
It was September. Mary was starting school the next week.
We were very busy. Our guests were arriving soon and we had to get their room ready.
The past with modal verbs
could is the past tense of can:
You could get a good meal for a pound when I was a boy.
would is the past tense of will:
He said he would come but he forgot.
We use may have, might have and could have to show that something has possibly happened in the past:
I'll telephone him. He might have got home early.
She's very late. She could have missed her train.
We use should have as the past form of should:
I didn't know he was ill. He should have told me.
You shouldn't have spent so much money.
We use would have and could have to talk about something that was possible in the past but did not happen:
I could have gone to Mexico for my holiday but it was too expensive.
I would have called you, but I had forgotten my phone.
They would have gone out if the weather had been better.