Conditionals: zero, first and second

Conditionals: zero, first and second

Do you know how to use the zero, first and second conditionals? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how zero, first and second conditionals are used.

If you freeze water, it becomes solid.
If it rains tomorrow, I'll take the car.
If I lived closer to the cinema, I would go more often.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If you study hard) and the main clause tells you the result (you will pass your exams). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If you study hard, you will pass your exams.
You will pass your exams if you study hard.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Zero conditional

We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are generally true, especially for laws and rules.

If I drink too much coffee, I can't sleep at night.
Ice melts if you heat it.
When the sun goes down, it gets dark.

The structure is: if/when + present simple >> present simple.

First conditional

We use the first conditional when we talk about future situations we believe are real or possible.

If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.
Arsenal will be top of the league if they win.
When I finish work, I'll call you.

In first conditional sentences, the structure is usually: if/when + present simple >> will + infinitive. 

It is also common to use this structure with unless, as long as, as soon as or in case instead of if.

I'll leave as soon as the babysitter arrives.
I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.
I'll give you a key in case I'm not at home.
You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight.

Second conditional

The second conditional is used to imagine present or future situations that are impossible or unlikely in reality.

If we had a garden, we could have a cat.
If I won a lot of money, I'd buy a big house in the country.
I wouldn't worry if I were you.

The structure is usually: if + past simple >> + would + infinitive. 

When if is followed by the verb be, it is grammatically correct to say if I were, if he were, if she were and if it were. However, it is also common to hear these structures with was, especially in the he/she form.

If I were you, I wouldn't mention it.
If she was prime minister, she would invest more money in schools.
He would travel more if he was younger.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 2

Language level

Average: 4.1 (373 votes)

Hello Dwishiren,

The second sentence in each pair is not correct. It should be '...if they won' and  'If I knew'.


We use present + will (or other modal verbs) when we think the situation is likely. We use past + would (or other modal verbs) if we think the situation is unlikely or impossible:


Arsenal will be top of the league if they win - I think it is likely that they will win.

Arsenal would be top of the league if they won - I don't believe that they will win.


If I know, I will tell you - I think there is a chance I will know.

If I knew, I would tell you - I don't believe I will know.



The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by gsgxxiii on Mon, 25/01/2021 - 01:03

For first conditional sentences, can i use : if + present simple >> could + infinitive. Or do I have to use will all the time.

Hello gsg238,

You can use many modal verbs in the main clause of conditional sentences:

If I take the job, I will earn more money.

If I take the job, I might earn more money.

If I take the job, I may earn more money.

If I take the job, I can earn more money.

If I take the job, I could earn more money.

If I take the job, I should earn more money.

If I take the job, I must earn more money.



The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by BobMux on Sat, 16/01/2021 - 13:37

Hello The LearnEnglish Team, May you please help me understand better why we have used first conditional for the sentence is below, while it seems a rule and needs to be in first conditional: Your membership will only be renewed if you pay your subscription within the next seven days!

Hello BobMux,

I think you have misphrased your question as you are asking why the sentence is a first conditional rather than a first conditional!


The form is used because it describes a real situation rather than a hypothetical one and it decribes a concrete case rather than a general truth.



The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by IanCorx on Wed, 13/01/2021 - 18:20

Hi team, Can you use “whether” interchangeable with “if” in the conditionals?
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Submitted by Peter M. on Thu, 14/01/2021 - 08:19

In reply to by IanCorx


Hello IanCorx,

No, we don't replace if with whether in conditionals.

You can use whether or not in place of if to indicate that your action will not change irrespective of the condition:

If the film is good, I'll stay to the end.

Whether or not the film is good, I'll stay to the end.



The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Yigido on Fri, 18/12/2020 - 18:46

Hi team, This sentence;''If I am lazy,I will not pass the exam, so I will work more.'' Is grammatically true?My teacher sad - - You can not use IF and SO togather in a sentence for the same condition.-Is it a rule? ;Can not I use any conjunction(because,and,but...)in the conditional sentences?or How I use?
Profile picture for user Kirk Moore

Submitted by Kirk Moore on Sat, 19/12/2020 - 14:39

In reply to by Yigido


Hello Yigido,

In speaking, where we don't use punctuation, this sentence is fine. But in writing, it's a run-on sentence, which is not correct in most situations. I'd recommend ending the first sentence after 'exam' and then starting a new one with 'So'.

All the best,


The LearnEnglish Team

Teacher, can you correct me?In writing,ın conditionals we can't use any conjunction(but,because, so, and, but...) Instead of we can end - conditional sentence-and start new sentence.