Participle clauses

Participle clauses

Do you know how to use participle clauses to say information in a more economical way? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how participle clauses are used.

Looked after carefully, these boots will last for many years.
Not wanting to hurt his feelings, I avoided the question. 
Having lived through difficult times together, they were very close friends.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Grammar B1-B2: Participle clauses: 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Participle clauses enable us to say information in a more economical way. They are formed using present participles (going, reading, seeing, walking, etc.), past participles (gone, read, seen, walked, etc.) or perfect participles (having gone, having read, having seen, having walked, etc.). 

We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example,

Waiting for Ellie, I made some tea. (While I was waiting for Ellie, I made some tea.)

Participle clauses do not have a specific tense. The tense is indicated by the verb in the main clause. 

Participle clauses are mainly used in written texts, particularly in a literary, academic or journalistic style. 

Present participle clauses

Here are some common ways we use present participle clauses. Note that present participles have a similar meaning to active verbs. 

  • To give the result of an action
    The bomb exploded, destroying the building.
  • To give the reason for an action
    Knowing she loved reading, Richard bought her a book.
  • To talk about an action that happened at the same time as another action
    Standing in the queue, I realised I didn't have any money.
  • To add information about the subject of the main clause
    Starting in the new year, the new policy bans cars in the city centre.

Past participle clauses

Here are some common ways that we use past participle clauses. Note that past participles normally have a passive meaning.

  • With a similar meaning to an if condition
    Used in this way, participles can make your writing more concise. (If you use participles in this way, … )
  • To give the reason for an action
    Worried by the news, she called the hospital.
  • To add information about the subject of the main clause
    Filled with pride, he walked towards the stage.

Perfect participle clauses

Perfect participle clauses show that the action they describe was finished before the action in the main clause. Perfect participles can be structured to make an active or passive meaning.

Having got dressed, he slowly went downstairs.
Having finished their training, they will be fully qualified doctors.
Having been made redundant, she started looking for a new job.

Participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions

It is also common for participle clauses, especially with -ing, to follow conjunctions and prepositions such as before, after, instead of, on, since, when, while and in spite of.

Before cooking, you should wash your hands. 
Instead of complaining about it, they should try doing something positive.
On arriving at the hotel, he went to get changed.
While packing her things, she thought about the last two years.
In spite of having read the instructions twice, I still couldn’t understand how to use it.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Grammar B1-B2: Participle clauses: 2

Language level

Average: 4.3 (77 votes)

Dear Peter
Your explanation about would have pp, took me to first squer again after almost one year trying to realize exact meaning of this structure. Base on my understanding the main usages of this structure are as follow:
1- in hypothetical situation and third type of if cluase
2- in contrast with your explanation, I thought it would be used almost always in past tense when we want to talk about possible consequence of action that happened or not happend in reality.
3- to guess something that could have happened in the past, for example, the exam was so easy that students would have finished it in less than hour.
4- one of the good examples expressing well the asked question ( would have thought), could be this, who would have thought that Cronaviruse could have been affecting all aspects of our life for almost two years. ( it says nobody though this issue)

Please guide me in this respect, you may not believe that fully appreciation of this structure have become a nightmare for me.

Hello aria rousta,

I think that's a pretty good summary.

Please note that my comment earlier was not about 'would have + verb3' in general (as a grammatical construction) but rather about the specific phrase 'I would have thought' and how it is used in communication.

'Who would have thought' is used to show that something is extremely surprising, as you say. Like 'I would have thought' it is a particular expression with a particular communicative use rather than a typical grammar construction.

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Parikenan on Fri, 29/10/2021 - 19:51


Hello The LearnEnglish Team,

I got this sentence, as written below, from the internet,

"either way" is
used for saying that it does not matter which of two things happens or is true, because the result will be the same.

Why don't they use "to" as a preposition here, so the sentence would be,

"either way" is used to saying that it does not matter which of two things happens or is true, because the result will be the same.

Thank you very much,
Hudi parikenan.

Hello Parikenan,

The form 'be used for' describes a thing's purpose: a pen is used for writing.
The form 'be used to' describes something which has become normal: I am used to my new house.

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by datdo14102004 on Sun, 24/10/2021 - 06:05


Hello teacher
Can I use present participle in this way to add information to the first clause?
"The figure for Food production in China was determined to be the highest one, rising from nearly 5 million tonnes to about 9 million tones between 2010 and 2012."
Thank you very much!

Hello datdo14102004 ,

Yes, the present participle 'rising' is fine here.

The LearnEnglish Team

Can I remove the comma after the first clause? Is there any change in the meaning of the sentence if I do that?

Hello datdo14102004,

The comma is necessary. Without the comma, the participle would form part of a defining relative clause describing 'the highest one'. In other words, the sentence would be about the highest figure out of all those which are rising, rather than the highest figure, with some additional detail added.

The LearnEnglish Team