Participle clauses

Participle clauses

Do you know how to use participle clauses to say information in a more economical way? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how participle clauses are used.

Looked after carefully, these boots will last for many years.
Not wanting to hurt his feelings, I avoided the question. 
Having lived through difficult times together, they were very close friends.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Grammar B1-B2: Participle clauses: 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Participle clauses enable us to say information in a more economical way. They are formed using present participles (going, reading, seeing, walking, etc.), past participles (gone, read, seen, walked, etc.) or perfect participles (having gone, having read, having seen, having walked, etc.). 

We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example,

Waiting for Ellie, I made some tea. (While I was waiting for Ellie, I made some tea.)

Participle clauses do not have a specific tense. The tense is indicated by the verb in the main clause. 

Participle clauses are mainly used in written texts, particularly in a literary, academic or journalistic style. 

Present participle clauses

Here are some common ways we use present participle clauses. Note that present participles have a similar meaning to active verbs. 

  • To give the result of an action
    The bomb exploded, destroying the building.
  • To give the reason for an action
    Knowing she loved reading, Richard bought her a book.
  • To talk about an action that happened at the same time as another action
    Standing in the queue, I realised I didn't have any money.
  • To add information about the subject of the main clause
    Starting in the new year, the new policy bans cars in the city centre.

Past participle clauses

Here are some common ways that we use past participle clauses. Note that past participles normally have a passive meaning.

  • With a similar meaning to an if condition
    Used in this way, participles can make your writing more concise. (If you use participles in this way, … )
  • To give the reason for an action
    Worried by the news, she called the hospital.
  • To add information about the subject of the main clause
    Filled with pride, he walked towards the stage.

Perfect participle clauses

Perfect participle clauses show that the action they describe was finished before the action in the main clause. Perfect participles can be structured to make an active or passive meaning.

Having got dressed, he slowly went downstairs.
Having finished their training, they will be fully qualified doctors.
Having been made redundant, she started looking for a new job.

Participle clauses after conjunctions and prepositions

It is also common for participle clauses, especially with -ing, to follow conjunctions and prepositions such as before, after, instead of, on, since, when, while and in spite of.

Before cooking, you should wash your hands. 
Instead of complaining about it, they should try doing something positive.
On arriving at the hotel, he went to get changed.
While packing her things, she thought about the last two years.
In spite of having read the instructions twice, I still couldn’t understand how to use it.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Grammar B1-B2: Participle clauses: 2

Language level

Average: 4.2 (81 votes)

Sir, reveling the secret, Johnson spoiled the enjoyment of surprise.
1.[can I interpret this context in this way- Johnson's motivation was to revel the secret] - if I interpret this in this way, can I use PRESENT PARTICIPLE.
2. (2nd scenario is that Johnson did not have such intention to revel secret , but he did it by mistake)- if I interpret this way, should I use PREPOSITION (BY or THROUGH)

Hello again Gopal Debnath,

It's hard to be sure when looking at sentences which are removed from any context, but I don't think the first interpretation works. Revealing the secret is not the motivation here, but the action, and the rest of the sentence describes the effect of this action.

The most likely prepositions here are 'by' and 'in', I think, but 'through' is also possible. It's not necessarily true that the revealing was accidental, however. It may be also that Johnson did not mean to spoil anything / did not realise that this would be the result.

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Gopal Debnath on Sun, 19/12/2021 - 07:28


Our dog lay under the bed, gnawing on a bone.
In this context does "gnawing on a bone" give only information?
can we write this in this way- Our dog lay under the bed while it was gnawing on a bone
Therefore, we can say that we reduced the adverbial clause and after reduction it became 'adjective phrase' only qualifying the subject 'the dog'.
Kindly reply🙏🙏!!

Submitted by Gopal Debnath on Sun, 19/12/2021 - 07:14


starting in the new year, the new law bans car parking near the parliament.
can I write this in this way- The new has been introduced and enforced in the new year and from then, car parking near the parliament is prohibited.
So, my question is that time in the main clause puts any effect on the participle( starting in the new year,.........).And give more examples regarding it.

Hi Gopal Debnath,

Yes, that's right. We need to interpret the time of the -ing clause by using information in the main clause.

For example, this sentence has the same "Starting ..." clause, but a different tense in the main clause:
-- Starting in the new year, the new law BANNED cars parking near the parliament.

In this sentence, we should understand the "Starting ..." clause as having occurred in the past (rather than the future, as in your original example).

I hope that helps.

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Gopal Debnath on Sat, 18/12/2021 - 18:54


Destroying forest, people are increasing the effect of global warming. is this grammartically correct?
if it is so, we can use present participle as adverb of manner.
Please reply🙏🙏🙏!!!

Hello again Gopal Debnath,

The sentence is not correct. Participle clauses can describe motivation or purpose (reason) but not impersonal cause (what makes an action occur).

Take a look at the example above:
"Knowing she loved reading, Richard bought her a book."
Richard's action was motivated by his knowledge; he bought the book because he knew she loved reading.

Now think about your example:
"Destroying the world's forests, people are increasing the effect of global warming."
[You need the plural form 'forests' here]
People are not increasing the effect of global warming because they are destroying the world's forests; it is not a motivation for them.

I don't think a participle clause is appropriate here. Instead, I would use 'By destroying...' or 'Through destroying...'

The LearnEnglish Team

Revealing the secret, She ruined all enjoyment of surprise.
Is it correct grammartically ?
Here participle clause is showing cause; please explain elaborately if it is not correct.

Sir, I have learnt a new concept from you. so, I thank you from bottom of my heart.
Now, Let me come to my next doubt and I hope you shall help me clear it.
Doubt- 1.[Jacob goes to school by cycling]
( by cycling)= acting as an adverb
can I write it in this way- 2.[Jacob goes to office cycling]
Is 2nd one correct grammartically??
Kindly reply🙏🙏!!

Hello again Gopal Debnath,

No, I don't think we would use this construction. The -ing form in constructions like this suggests simultaneous actions:

> Jacob walked to the office singing a song.
> Paul wrote an email listening to the radio.

Your sentence would separate the two actions, making them distinct actions which happened at the same time rather than being linked through one being the method by which the other is accomplished.

The LearnEnglish Team