There are two tenses in English – past and present.

The past tense in English is used:

  • to talk about the past
  • to talk about hypotheses – things that are imagined rather than true.
  • for politeness.

There are four past tense forms in English:

Tense Form
Past simple: I worked
Past continuous: I was working
Past perfect: I had worked
Past perfect continuous: I had been working

We use these forms:

  • to talk about the past:

He worked at McDonald’s. He had worked there since July..
He was working at McDonald’s. He had been working since July.

  • to refer to the present or future in conditions:

He could get a new job if he really tried.
If Jack was playing they would probably win.

and hypotheses:

It might be dangerous. Suppose they got lost.
I would always help someone who really needed help.

and wishes:

I wish it wasn’t so cold.

  • In conditions, hypotheses and wishes, if we want to talk about the past, we always use the past perfect:

I would have helped him if he had asked.
It was very dangerous, What if you had got lost?
I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month.


  • We can use the past forms to talk about the present in a few polite expressions:

Excuse me, I was wondering if this was the train for York.
I just hoped you would be able to help me.




Thanks again,Kirk.

Sorry for not placing comment on quite the right page!

Hello again!
In one of your comments I saw such example:
'She told me that she has not done her work.'
I am a little bit confused,- shouldn't there be Past Perfect here instead of Present Perfect (She told me that she had not done her work) ,since as I see it the fact of her not having done her work refers to the past,i.e. to the time period limited by the moment when she told me this in the past? Or I am wrong in my assumptions?

Hello Slava B,

Both the past perfect and the present perfect are possible here. If the action being described is still current then no tense shift is required. For example, take a look at these:

She said she loved me. [Perhaps she still loves me, perhaps she does not - we do not know]

She said she loves me. [She still loves me]


If you say 'has not done' then the situation is still current and has not been remedied - the work has still not been done. If you say 'had not done' then we understand that the situation is no longer current because the work has been completed in the meantime by someone.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

I read this statement in Longman text book, in comprehension reading part, which is
"... and this time he did succeed."
Why the author said that "he did succeed" not "he succeeded" ?
Isn't "succeed' a verb ?

Hello masri.ahm04,

Without knowing the context I can't say for sure, but this looks to me like an instance of using 'did' for emphasis. This page explains how to use 'do' for emphasis -- 'did' can be used the same way when talking about the past.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

is hyphotheses spelling is correct?

Hello just human,

Almost. The singular is 'hypothesis' and the plural is 'hypotheses'. Please consult a dictionary for questions like this in the future.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

hello,could you tell me the difference between "who does Lucy love?" and "who loves Lucy?" .And is the second structure grammatically correct?Thanks in advance.

Hello again fatima,

In the first question, the subject is 'Lucy' and 'who' is the object of the verb. In the second question, 'who' is the subject and 'Lucy' is the object. Both are grammatically correct.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team