General and specific determiners

Determiners are words which come at the beginning of the noun phrase.

They tell us whether the noun phrase is specific or general.

Determiners are either specific or general

Specific determiners:

The specific determiners are:

  • the definite article: the
  • possessives: my, your, his, her, its; our, their, whose
  • demonstratives: this, that, these, those
  • interrogatives: which

We use a specific determiner when we believe the listener/reader knows exactly what we are referring to:

Can you pass me the salt please?
Look at those lovely flowers.
Thank you very much for your letter.
Whose coat is this?

General determiners:

The general determiners are:

  • a; an; any; another; other; what

When we are talking about things in general and the listener/reader does not know exactly what we are referring to, we can use an uncount noun or a plural noun with no determiner:

Milk is very good for you. (= uncount noun)
Health and education are very important. (= 2 uncount nouns)
Girls normally do better in school than boys. (= plural nouns with no determiner)

… or you can use a singular noun with the indefinite article a or an:

A woman was lifted to safety by a helicopter.
A man climbing nearby saw the accident.

We use the general determiner any with a singular noun or an uncount noun when we are talking about all of those people or things:

It’s very easy. Any child can do it. (= All children can do it)
With a full licence you are allowed to drive any car.
I like beef, lamb, pork - any meat.

We use the general determiner another to talk about an additional person or thing:

Would you like another glass of wine?

The plural form of another is other:

I spoke to John, Helen and a few other friends.


We use quantifiers when we want to give someone information about the number of something: how much or how many.




How can we emphasise actions and also that in different ways?

Could you please elaborate and explain it with some links and examples


Sometimes in the punctuation case of a sentence, “ the” word is used. But in some case it is not used.

For example- to the school, to the market. On the pretext. To the government.

Why “the” is used here??

Without ” the”-
Is not in a position. ( “a” instead of the)
The girl’s mother works at a doctor’s clinics.( “a” instead of the)
Offender was thrashed for several hours by a policeman. ( a instead of the)
The girl gave birth to a girl ( a instead of the)
The girl belongs to a village in Tehri district. ( not “ the “ is used)
A student of class 10 ( the is not used here)

Please explain why “the” is replaced by “a”.
Also, please explain why “ the” is not used in some punctuation cases like in the last two sentences mentioned above.

Please clear our doubts on this topic thoroughly.

Best regards,

Hi Rox4090,

We use articles to show if the thing which we are talking about is known (identified) or not known (unidentified) to the speaker and listener. For example:

Let's go to a restaurant. [it could be any restaurant, no particular restaurant is intended]

Let's go to the restaurant. [the speaker is thinking of a particular restaurant and thinks that the listener also knows which restaurant is meant]


This is the key distinction between 'a' and 'the' and it is really a question of the context and of what knowledge the speaker and listener share, rather than being a purely grammatical question.


You have a lot of examples in your question and we can't really provide detailed explanations of multiple examples. We're happy, of course to help our users as much as we can but we are a small team here at LearnEnglish and deal with many questions every day. However, we have several pages on this topic:

the indefinite article 'a'

the definite article 'the'

three golden rules

other rules


Please take a look at these pages and compare your sentences with the examples there. I think you will be able to find the explanations yourself that way and if you work it out in this way you will remember it far better than if we simply tell you. You can post your own explanations in a comment on one of those pages and we'll be happy to tell you if your explanations are correct.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you for the reply.

Please tell me why no article is used in this sentence.

A student of class 10 is on a winning streak.

Why “ the” is not used after the word “ of” in the above sentence.
Best regards,

Hello Rox4090,

'Class 10' here is treated as a name and therefore no article is used. Similarly, we also say 'a student in year 5' and 'the room is on floor 24'. Note that when we use ordinals we often use the definite article. Thus we say 'a student in the fifth year' and 'the room is on the 24th floor'. This is because ordinals are generally descriptive (showing a position in a sequence or list) rather than forming names. However, there are exceptions, notably 'a student in fifth grade'.


Note that this is a rule of thumb and there are exceptions. For example, when we talk about vehicles we use definite articles, so we say 'the Renault Clio 2' and 'the Saturn V rocket'. Some other groups take a definite article as well, such as 'the G7' and 'the Birmingham Six' (a group of men at the centre of a famous UK crime scandal).


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team


How can we use the word“ this” for linking with previous sentence?

Please provide some examples and explain the role played “This”.

Also, when we use “This” for linking , is it connecting the whole previous sentence or only a part of that sentence.

If you could solve the whole puzzle of using the word “This”, I would be very grateful to you. By this I mean, I might forget some points to ask you on this topic and if you think some other important information should be added to this topic, please do so.

Best regards,

Hello Rox4090,

This is actually quite a big topic, since 'this' is used in so many different ways and to mean different things. I'm afraid I can't possibly cover all of them, but, for example, consider 'it', 'this' and 'that' when used as pronouns.

All three are commonly used to refer back to situations that have just been mentioned. 'it' has no emphasis, whereas 'this' and 'that' put more focus on the situation. If you are making a simple statement about the previous thing, both 'this' and 'that' are appropriate, but if you're going to speak at length about the situation, 'this' is better.

If you could give a specific example of a sentence (with context) that you struggle to understand, we will do our best to help you understand it. You might also want to check out the Wikipedia article on Deixis -- especially the Place deixis section -- though it's quite technical.

I hope this helps you.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you for the prompt reply.

Many children are dying from the malnutrition. This shows that the government agencies are inept towards their responsibilities.
Strict penalties should be given to repeat offenders. Life imprisonment can be awarded to those who commit heinous crimes and short term jail for those committing petty crimes like theft or fraud. These types of punishments may reduce the crime rate; however, if after this, it is not reduced, government can revise the penalties in order to curb the criminal activities.

Please see if the word ‘this” is ok.


Is this sentence correct? It's strange to me because of the 'a':

'What makes you think he is a him'

Thank you.

Hello MCWSL,

Yes, that is correct. The object form of personal pronouns is usually used after the verb 'be', especially in simple copulas (such as this case). It's a bit strange, really, but it's how native speakers speak.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team