Participle clauses

Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause which enables us to say information in a more economical way. We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example:

Waiting for John, I made some tea.

Waiting for John, the kettle boiled. [This would suggest that the kettle was waiting for John!]

 

Forming participle clauses

Participle clauses can be formed with the present participle (-ing form of the verb) or past participle (third form of the verb). Participle clauses with past participles have a passive meaning:

Shouting loudly, Peter walked home. [Peter was shouting]

Shouted at loudly, Peter walked home. [Someone was shouting at Peter]

If we wish to emphasise that one action was before another then we can use a perfect participle (having + past participle):

Having won the match, Susan jumped for joy.

Having been told the bad news, Susan sat down and cried.

 

 

The meaning and use of participle clauses

Participle clauses give information about condition, reason, result or time. For example:

 

CONDITION (in place of an if-condition):

Looked after carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

Compare: If you look after it carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

 

REASON (in place of words like so or therefore):

Wanting to speak to him about the contract, I decided to arrange a meeting.

Compare: I wanted to speak to him about the contract so I decided to arrange a meeting.

 

RESULT (in place of words like because or as a result):

I had no time to read my book, having spent so long doing my homework.

Compare: I had no time to read my book because I had spent so long doing my homework.

 

TIME (in place of words like when, while or as soon as):

Sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

Compare: While I was sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

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Comments

"As globalization continues and the world heads into the future, the Earth's natural processes are altered, leading to major environmental challenges."

What kind of clause is ",leading to major environmental challenges."?

Hello Oloap,

This is an example of a reduced relative clause:

As globalization continues and the world heads into the future, the Earth's natural processes are altered, which leads to major environmental challenges.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

In this sentence
'The family suffered seeing how the man had been treated'
shouldn't there be 'in' before the participle seeing
I.e. The family suffered in seeing how........

Hello Miwa42',

There is no need for 'in' before the participle here. The participle clause describes what causes the suffering and it does not need any preposition before it.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

hello
as you mentioned above, is the structure of the following sentences correct? or is it possible to use future tense for perfect participle?

"having worked for several hours in a joyful environment, people will stay have enough energy to interact with family."

"having improved the quality of products, companies can prove themselves."

"having increased the cost of subsistence in recent years, less people can fulfill these extravagant cost of sustenance."

Hello a_mig,

The participle clauses in the sentences above are all correct (there's no problem with using 'will' in the main clause after them) -- good work!

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

admit is a 2 syllable verb with stress on second syllable ad-MIT. It ends in a final consonant , T and is preceeded by a vowel, i .Therefore the T is doubled before ed/ing in participle form as they both begin with a vowel e/i.

Develop is 3 syllables de-VE-lop with stress on second but not final syllable and, therefore does not comply with the doubling -of- the final consonant rule.

I hope this helps you Mehdi.

Regards

Brian

hello.
please why must we add a T to "to admit" so it becomes "Admitted" in participle form, but we don't add a P to "devlop" and it just becomes "developed".
What's the rule for this ? please i nead your help

Hello mehdi,

I'm afraid there is no good reason for this, and although there are some general rules in English spelling, there are so many exceptions that the rules are not all that useful in the end. I wish I had a better answer for you!

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team 

Greetings.

I would like to ask which of the following is correct. They all seem correct to me.
1. Seeing this, she informed her father immediately.
2. On seeing this, she informed her father immediately.
3. Having seen this, she informed her father immediately.
(Note: Before the above sentence, there are some sentences describing a crime scene.)

Kindly explain the grammar rules if any of the above sentences is wrong.

Thanks in advance.

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