The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.


 

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Comments

Hi Pete,
I really appreciate your timely response. Please keep up the good work .
Many thanks!!
 

based on the comprehension of this sentence please answer following questions
Define Munsifs?
Define Amins?
Below the district Courts were Registrar's courts,headed by Europeans, and a number of subordinate courts headed by Indian judges known as Munsifs and Amins.

Hello lrnenglish,
I'm afraid I'm not really sure what you are asking here.  Could you rephrase the question please?
Best wishes,
 
Peter
The LearnEnglish Team

while reading my book, I came across following sentence. 
"Below the district Courts were Registrar's courts,headed by Europeans, and a number of subordinate courts headed by Indian judges known as Munsifs and Amins."
I was not able to understand the sentence as i often face problem while reading long sentences.
Based on the comprehension of this sentence please help me answer following questions
Define Munsifs?
Define Amins?

Hi lrnenglish,
The sentence is explaining a hierarchy of courts, and mentions three different kinds and who headed the lower two kinds of courts. The Munsifs and Amins were Indian judges who headed the lowest of these three courts. Unfortunately, I'm not familiar enough with Indian history to know more than that, but I'm sure you can find information on Munsifs and Amins if you do an internet search on them.
Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

thank you very much sir.
your comprehension and explanation have make me understand that.
i am also practicing to improve my comprehension and pray to God to make me to reach such level of comprehesion.

hello sir!
'He works hard lest he should fail.'
I'm confuse why we use should here?

Hello Dani64721,
This is an example of a subjunctive form, which is not often seen in modern English but which is used from time to time in certain (often rather formal) structures.  For example:
 
It is necessary that he see the doctor immediately. [notice that it is not 'sees' here as it is a subjunctive form rather than a present simple form]
It is important that he be patient.
I insist that you leave now.
He works hard lest he fail.
 
The 'should' in your sentence makes it seem more unpredictable.  It is a use we sometimes see in conditional forms, such as in this famous beginning to a poem:
 
'IF I should die, think only this of me
That there's some corner of a foreign field
That is forever England.'
 
The should carries a sense of the event happening by chance - something like 'If it so happens that I die',
Thank you for an interesting question.
Best wishes,
 
Peter
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,
Just wanted to know about the commas that come in some sentences before WHICH, WHO ... Some times, there are no commas before such words. Please explain me with examples. Thanks!
 

Hello Shashank Shekhar,
The words you mention are relative pronouns, used in relative clauses.  Whether or not we use a comma depends on the kind of relative clause we have: defining (no comma) or non-defining (with commas).
You can find out more about relative clauses here.
You can find out more about defining relative clauses here.
You can find out more about non-defining relative clauses here.
I hope that clarifies it for you.
Best wishes,
 
Peter
The LearnEnglish Team

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