The modal verbs are can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would and must.

The modals are used to show that we believe something is certain, probable or possible:


We use the modals could, might and may to show that something is possible in the future, but not certain:

They might come later. (= Perhaps/Maybe they will come later.)
They may come by car. (= Perhaps/Maybe they will come by car.)
If we don’t hurry we could be late. (= Perhaps/Maybe we will be late)

We use could have, might have and may have to show that something was possible now or at some time in the past:

It’s ten o’clock. They might have arrived now.
They could have arrived hours ago.

We use the modal can to make general statements about what is possible:

It can be very cold in winter. (= It is sometimes very cold in winter)
You can easily lose your way in the dark. (= People often lose their way in the dark)

We use the modal could as the past tense of can:

It could be very cold in winter. (= Sometimes it was very cold in winter.)
You could lose your way in the dark. (= People often lost their way in the dark)


We use the negative can’t or cannot to show that something is impossible:

That can’t be true.
You cannot be serious.

We use couldn’t/could not to talk about the past:

We knew it could not be true.
He was obviously joking. He could not be serious.


We use the modal must to show we are sure something to be true and we have reasons for our belief:

It’s getting dark. It must be quite late.
You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry.

We use must have for the past:

They hadn’t eaten all day. They must have been hungry.
You look happy. You must have heard the good news.

We use the modal should to suggest that something is true or will be true in the future, and to show you have reasons for your suggestion:

Ask Miranda. She should know.
It's nearly six o'clock. They should arrive soon.

We use should have to talk about the past:

It's nearly eleven o'clock. They should have arrived by now.




Dear admin,
Is it grammatically correct to write " May your happiness will never last " ?

Hello duffyzee,

I'm afraid that sentence is not grammatically correct. The problem is that you can't use two modal verbs ('may' and 'will') together in this way. Perhaps you mean 'may your happiness never last'? Or 'may your happiness never end'?

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Kirk
Is 'will' modal verb or auxiliary one? According your answer to last comment, be understood that maybe there is no difference between auxiliary and modal verb. I'm getting mixed up, distinguish the difference of the modal and auxiliary verb, please.

Hello Fatemeh Roostaei,

Auxiliary verbs are helper verbs which occur with a main verb in order to create tenses, moods, aspects and voices. 

A modal verb is one kind of auxiliary verb. There are other auxiliary verbs which are not modals, such as 'did', 'do' and 'have' in these examples:

Did he go there?

I don't care.

I've got ten pounds.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Dear the English learner team

Could you please explain what are the differences between these sentences.
and what are the role of the verbs (has to, might, if + will and either+have to) as I always make mistake when I use these verbs. Thank you

1. Ali has to wake up at 8:00 am tomorrow.

2. If Ali wakes up late tomorrow, he might miss the train.

3. if it rains on Friday, the party will be cancelled.

4. Either the party will be cancelled, or they have to move it indoors.

Hello Diya,

It would take quite a long time to answer all of your questions thoroughly! To start with, I'm going to suggest some pages that I think will help you. After you've read through them, if you'd like to ask us a specific question, please let us know.

First of all, you can learn about 'have to' on our Modals 1 page. Our Conditionals 1 and 2 pages explain sentences that begin with 'if'. Finally, for 'either ... or', I'd recommend the Cambridge Dictionary's page on this topic.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

I can see nobody is interested in answering my question. Since every question I see on this page has been answered the same day and almost in a few hours, I have to assume that either my question makes no sense at all as to be analysed or I accidentally broke any of the rules on this page. Please, let me know if the latter is the reason why no answer has been replied. Thanks.

Hello Heeppee creepy,

Our role here is to maintain the site and add to it. Answering questions in the comments section is something which we do in addition to that, when time allows.

We see many comments every day and we make decisions on which comments to answer first. Comments which reveal problem with the site have priority. After that we look at which comments are precise, concise and can be answered quickly, so that we can help as many people as possible in the limited time we have. Questions which are long, hard to read and contain multiple queries, such as yours, take a long time for us to answer. If you had asked one concrete question then you would receive an answer quickly. Instead you asked multiple questions in one block of text, making it hard to read.

We will answer you but you must be patient when you ask such a long question.


LearnEnglish is a free service and our team is a small one. If the time taken to respond to your comment is too long for you then there are many paid services which will provide you with a quicker response, I am sure.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

No, its OK. I just thought nobody had noticed my question or I had broke a rule on the site, but now I know that I'm "on the air" and that's enough to me. I apologise for the type of question I asked. I know I'm not very concise most of times.

Hi all, I 'm new here and I would like to ask a question to the experts. I prefer to study modal verbs one by one, until I really get to master the one I'm studying I keep going with the next one , and by now I'm stuck with SHOULD +HAVE. firstly I'd like to know if these sentences are OK: 1 it's only ten and she gets off work at 11, she shouldn't have left her office yet, I'll ring her. 2 it's ten and she starts working at nine, she should have arrived at her office by now, I'll ring her ! 3 it's 1 o'clock and she doesn't answer, she shouldn't have arrived at her office yet , I 'll call her later. In the third sentence is where I have serious doubt, first sentence has a positive connotation since I'm happy because I think I still can get a hold of her , and in the third sentence the connotation is negative because I feel worry about the fact that I might not be able to reach her because she hasn't arrive.. The same as in : 1 Tom is very happy, his wife should've told him about her pregnancy already . 2 Tom is very happy, his wife shouldn't have told him about her plans of abortion yet. I'd like to know if SHOULDN'T HAVE can be used with this connotation, and what would the change be if I leave out the ALREADY, YET,
And BY NOW of these sentences . please correct my sentences cause this is what I'm here for ! Thanks .