1 Talking about past events and situations:

We use the past simple:

  • when we are talking about an event that happened at a particular time in the past

We arrived home before dark
The film started at seven thirty.

  • when we are talking about something that continued for some time in the past

Everybody worked hard through the winter.
We stayed with our friends in London.

When we are talking about something that happened several times in the past we use

  • the past simple:

Most evenings we stayed at home and watched DVDs.
Sometimes they went out for a meal.

  • … or used to

Most evenings we used to stay at home and watch DVDs.
We used to go for a swim every morning.

  • ... or would

Most evenings he would take the dog for a walk.
They would often visit friends in Europe.

WARNING: We do not normally use would with stative verbs.

We use the past continuous:

  • when we are talking about something which happened before and after a given time in the past

It was just after ten. I was watching the news on TV.
At half-time we were losing 1-0.

  • when we are talking about something happening before and after another action in the past:

He broke his leg when he was playing rugby.
She saw Jim as he was driving away.

2 The past in the past

When we are looking back from a point in the past to something earlier in the past we use the past perfect:

Helen suddenly remembered she had left her keys in the car.
When we had done all our shopping we caught the bus home.
They wanted to buy a new computer, but they hadn’t saved enough money.
They would have bought a new computer if they had saved enough money.

3 The past and the present:

We use the present perfect:

  • when we are talking about the effects in the present of something that happened in the past:

I can’t open the door. I’ve left my keys in the car.
Jenny has found a new job. She works in a supermarket now.

  • When we are talking about something that started in the past and still goes on:

We have lived here since 2007. (and we still live here)
I have been working at the university for over ten years.

4 The future in the past

When we talk about the future from a time in the past we use:

  • would as the past tense of will

He thought he would buy one the next day.
Everyone was excited. The party would be fun.

  • was/were going to

John was going to drive and Mary was going to follow on her bicycle.
It was Friday. We were going to set off the next day.

  • the past continuous:

It was September. Mary was starting school the next week.
We were very busy. The shop was opening in two weeks time.






Very nice! I get it.
Hope you don't mind coz I am asking again, like I really need to relate this to my previous question.
Q: if I use ''have'' is it correct if don't add a time reference to it? On the flip side, I'm aware I have to include a time reference but I'm asking if it is still possible if I don't (ex. I have finished my homework) Thx.

Hello Aoll212,

In this example you have changed the verb form from past perfect to present perfect, so it is not the same meaning at all. With present perfect sentences the time reference is already known: it is the present. There is no need to provide a time reference. The past perfect describes a time before a past time, so needs a reference; the present perfect describes a time before the present, and so the time reference is already known. Therefore your example is fine and, indeed, providing a time reference other than a duration of unfinished time (with for or since) would be incorrect.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello again,
I want to ask about using past perfect 'had'
Example: 'I had read'
1. Is this grammatically correct without adding time reference?

Hello Aoll212,

The sentence is correct grammatically speaking, but it needs a context to make sense. That could be provided by an explicit time reference or by the context of other information around this sentence. The past perfect always refers to a time before another event in the past, so we need to have another event for it to make sense.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello, i just wanted to know in a letter if i am tellinghappened in the the past like for example..

Five days ago, the patient complained a heache or has complained headache? But she is still experiencing headache at the time of writing a letter. I am confused. Pls help me.

Hello luveee13,

When we have a finished time reference ('give days ago') we do not use the present perfect. The compaint was in the past and is finished and so we use the past simple. If the action or event is not finished then the present perfect is used. For example, the patient's pain has not ended so you would say 'She has had headaches for five days' or 'The headaches have been hurting her for five days'.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Good day our online english tutors,
This is a present perfect continuous tense, pls. help me again.
'Hello, I just wanna make sure if your the one who have been attending Sir x's class since then?'
Is this grammatically correct? Thx

Hello Aoll212,

There are one or two problems with the sentence. The correct form would be:

Hello, I just want to check if you're the one who has been attending Mr. x's class since then?'


However, we would only use 'then' if the time has just been mentioned. More likely would be to give a time (e.g. '...since last week').


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Thx, noted.
I'm also just checking if I did it right using 'who' in the sentence and I am correct on that part.

on the other hand, I am not sure about the exact time reference to use(either since+ a couple of months ago or early months this year or from the early period of the class, thus, I used 'since+then' without knowing the thorough meaning of it, oopsie my bad.) but I learnt about using 'since+then' from you guys hehe.

" Samantha hadn’t had time to explain her side of the story. " it looks strange to me.... why this sentence having hadn't and had both