Most historians use paper evidence, such as letters, documents and photographs, but archaeologists learn from the objects left behind by the humans of long ago, like bones and ceramics.

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Archaeology, like many academic words, comes from Greek and means, more or less, ‘the study of old things’. So, it is really a part of the study of history. However, most historians use paper evidence, such as letters, documents, paintings and photographs, but archaeologists learn from the objects left behind by the humans of long ago. Normally, these are the hard materials that don’t decompose or disappear very quickly – things like human bones and skeletons, objects made from stone and metal, and ceramics.

Sometimes, archaeologists and historians work together. Take, for example, the study of the Romans, who dominated the Mediterranean area and much of Europe two thousand years ago. We know a lot about them from their writing, and some of their most famous writers are still quoted in English. We also know a lot about them from what they made, from their coins to their buildings. Archaeologists have worked on Roman remains as far apart as Hadrian’s Wall in the north of England and Leptis Magna in Libya.

Of course, for much of human history, there are no written documents at all. Who were the first humans, and where did they come from? This is a job for the archaeologists, who have found and dated the bones and objects left behind. From this evidence, they believe that humans first appeared in Africa and began moving to other parts of the world about 80,000 years ago. The movement of our ancestors across the planet has been mapped from their remains – humans went to Australia about 70,000 years ago, but have been in South America for just 15,000 years. The evidence of archaeology has helped to show the shared origin and history of us all.

It is very unusual to find anything more than the hard evidence of history – normally, the bacteria in the air eat away at soft organic materials, like bodies, clothes and things made of wood. Occasionally, things are different.

A mind-boggling discovery

In 1984, two men made an amazing discovery while working in a bog called Lindow Moss, near Manchester in the north of England. A bog is a very wet area of earth, with a lot of plants growing in it. It can be like a very big and very thick vegetable soup – walk in the wrong place and you can sink and disappear forever. After hundreds of years, the dead plants can compress together and make ‘peat’, which is like soil, but is so rich in energy that it can be burned on a fire, like coal.

The men were cutting the peat when one of them saw something sticking out – a human foot! Naturally, the men called the police, who then found the rest of the body. Was it a case of murder? Possibly – but it was a death nearly two thousand years old. The two men had found a body from the time of the Roman invasion of Celtic Britain. Despite being so old, this body had skin, muscles, hair and internal organs – the scientists who examined him were able to look inside the man’s stomach and find the food that he had eaten for his last meal!

Why was this man so well preserved? It was because he was in a very watery environment, safe from the bacteria that need oxygen to live. Also, the water in the bog was very acidic. The acid preserved the man’s skin in the way that animal skin is preserved for leather coats and shoes.

How did he die? Understandably, archaeologists and other scientists wanted to know more about the person that they called ‘Lindow Man’. His hands and fingernails suggested that he hadn’t done heavy manual work in his life – he could have been a rich man or a priest. They found that he hadn’t died by accident. The forensic examination revealed that he had been hit on the head three times and his throat was cut with a knife. Then a rope was tightened around his neck. As if that wasn’t enough, he was then thrown into the bog.

So, Lindow Man was killed using three different methods, when just one would have been sufficient. The archaeologists believe that he was sacrificed to three different Celtic gods, called Taranis, Esus and Teutates. Each god required a different form of death. A sacrifice to Teutates required drowning, which is why he was found in the bog. Nobody can tell the complete story of Lindow Man. The Romans said that the Celts made sacrifices every May to make sure that there was enough food that year. Was he a typical ‘routine’ sacrifice?

An archaeologist called Anne Ross has suggested that Lindow Man was a special case. Why would an important man be sacrificed to three gods? Perhaps it was in response to the Roman invasion of Britain, which started in the year AD 43, close to the time that Lindow Man died. He might have been killed to gain the help of the gods against the Romans. It didn’t work. The Romans stayed in Britain for four hundred years and Lindow Man stayed in his bog for two thousand.

Say hello to Lindow Man

If you visit London, you can go and see Lindow Man at the British Museum, where he is spending some time in the company of more famous mummies from Egypt. Whereas the bodies of the Egyptian kings and queens were intentionally preserved, Lindow Man is with us by accident. Whatever his origins, it is a fascinating experience to see him face-to-face. I recommend it.



Language level

Upper intermediate: B2


Learning about our ancestors is learning history. It opens my mind. The most interesting archaeological discoveries in my country is Son Doong cave. If you have free time, you should travel to my country , visit Son Doong cave. It is very beautiful place.

Rather interesting story. I've never heard of this exploration.
I've even never thought that peat bogs are able to preserve biological material so well.

Great article.

for me, archeology is one of the most beautiful cultures that there is and will have the human being is something that with the simple fact of seeing one is given as much of the beauties that the human being can create since it is not only about realizing something present if not to realize something future and to realize that it has a great diversity of culture in many places of the world for example or trees are simply a culture shocking for a lot but for others only one tree more from my point of view this should change to give life to what already has life and to be able to realize that what is out there is marvelous

I've never heard of this discovery before. I found it really fascinating.
Learning about our ancestor and our cultural heritage, I suppose, is a way through which we can know far more about ourselves. I mean, who we are now as a society depends to what the previous generations have done, for better and for worse. But, I know I am too vague with this contribution.

Hello everyone,
this time I'm reading a very interesting book about the city of Pompei in Italy.
This book was written by Alberto Angela.
The writer reconstructs in his book the history of Pompei and its inhabitants a few hours before eruption of Vesuvius.
The remains found by archaeologists, show the traditions of that historical period very far, but also very close.
The remains are evidence of a very advanced civilisation.

I think it is important to learn about our ancestors , because in this way , we can earn information about the style they lived , they way they worked , and the most importantly , the connection between the personalities .

Great article. Fantastic.

i think it's important to learn history and how our ancestors lived, till we improve what they were doing right and avoid what they did wrong. as the famous say tell: history is repeating itself.
the biggest archaeological discovery in my country is the pyramids, NO!!!, I don't live in Egypt, I meant Sudan.
for those who don't know, sudan has more pyramids than Egypt but the lack of advertisement and the political corruption made that a very few those who know this tip.

What a facsinating article to read I get surprised when I read it . visiting musums is certainly my attention and I will start with that one which locates in the city I've lived in recently ..