Participle clauses

Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause which enables us to say information in a more economical way. We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example:

Waiting for John, I made some tea.

Waiting for John, the kettle boiled. [This would suggest that the kettle was waiting for John!]

 

Forming participle clauses

Participle clauses can be formed with the present participle (-ing form of the verb) or past participle (third form of the verb). Participle clauses with past participles have a passive meaning:

Shouting loudly, Peter walked home. [Peter was shouting]

Shouted at loudly, Peter walked home. [Someone was shouting at Peter]

If we wish to emphasise that one action was before another then we can use a perfect participle (having + past participle):

Having won the match, Susan jumped for joy.

Having been told the bad news, Susan sat down and cried.

 

 

The meaning and use of participle clauses

Participle clauses give information about condition, reason, result or time. For example:

 

CONDITION (in place of an if-condition):

Looked after carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

Compare: If you look after it carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

 

REASON (in place of words like so or therefore):

Wanting to speak to him about the contract, I decided to arrange a meeting.

Compare: I wanted to speak to him about the contract so I decided to arrange a meeting.

 

RESULT (in place of words like because or as a result):

I had no time to read my book, having spent so long doing my homework.

Compare: I had no time to read my book because I had spent so long doing my homework.

 

TIME (in place of words like when, while or as soon as):

Sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

Compare: While I was sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

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Comments

Hello again monarchy110,

The first one is correct and the second is not. I'd suggest you look up both 'rob' and 'steal' (which is the verb needed in the second sentence) in the dictionary and see how they are used in the example sentences.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

dear Sir,

i am a sales manager in Iran.

i wanted my customer giving his information and i said : Sent your Contact information, i will let you know the prices for Products.

i was wondering if you could let me know whether this sentence is correct or not.

Hello masoud mahmoody,

We don't generally offer the service of correcting users' texts, but since this is so short, I can give you some feedback. The command form of 'send' is 'send' (not 'sent') and some kind of conjunction, such as 'and', should go between the two phrases: 'Send me your contact information and I will let you know the prices of the products' is what I'd recommend. Still, what you said is perfectly understandable! Good work!

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi!
I have met a girl who have scored well in the exams.
Can I transform this sentence using participle into it:
I have met a girl having scored well in the exams.
Thanks!

Hello neha_sri,

When we use a participle like this it always refers to the subject of the first clause. In other words, in your sentnece the person who scored well in the exams is the speaker ('I'), and so the meaning is different.

Note that there are errors in the first sentence too: the verb 'scored' should be in the past simple rather than the present perfect as the action is a completed past action.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi!
>I can't work under pressure. I can't meet deadlines in time.
Can I merge this sentence using participle like this?
>I can't work under pressure, not meeting deadlines in time.
Thanks!

Hello neha_sri,

That doesn't really work. We use an -ing participle clause like this when one even occurs during another event, so your sentence would mean:

I can't work under pressure when I am not meeting deadlines.

In the original sentence the meaning is different: there are two verbs which are equal in value. To join the sentence and keep the same meaning you could say:

I can't work under pressure or meet deadlines in time.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi!
>There are two boys working with top mnc,who have married under this system.
Can I write the above mentioned sentence like this?
>there are two boys working with top mnc,having married under this system.
Thanks!

Hello neha_sri,

I'm afraid I'm not sure what this sentence is supposed to mean, so it's difficult to say for sure. I expect that 'mnc' means 'multinational companies', but who married? The boys? Companies don't 'marry', they 'merge'. If it's the boys who married, the relative clause might be clearer closer to its antecedent, e.g. 'There are two boys, who married under this system, that are working with top MNC', though your version is also possible. Using 'having married ...' would be unusual and could cause confusion.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi there,

I'm wandering if it is correct for us to use negative present or past participle clauses.

I feel worried not receiving message from her.

I received the message not written by her.

Many thanks,

Plamen

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