When we talk about something that happened in the past we sometimes want to refer back to something that happened before that time. We can use the past perfect tense (had + past participle) to do this.


Look at these two sentences.


  • John left the house at 7:30 yesterday morning.
  • Mary rang John’s doorbell at 8:15 yesterday.

Both actions happened in the past so we use the past simple tense. But look at how we can combine the sentences.

  • Mary rang John’s doorbell at 8:15 yesterday but John had already left the house.

We use the past perfect (had left) because the action happened before another action in the past (Mary rang the doorbell.)

Look at some more examples of the past perfect.

  • When Mrs Brown opened the washing machine she realised she had washed the cat.
  • I got a letter from Jim last week. We’d been at school together but we’d lost touch with each other.

The past perfect is used because they were at school before he received the letter. It refers to an earlier past.

Look at these 2 sentences.

  • James had cooked breakfast when we got up.
  • James cooked breakfast when we got up.

In the first sentence, the past perfect tells us that James cooked breakfast before we got up. In the second sentence, first we got up and then James cooked breakfast.

Past perfect continuous

The past perfect can also be used in the continuous.

  • I realised I had been working too hard so I decided to have a holiday.
  • By the time Jane arrived we had been waiting for 3 hours.

The most common mistake with the past perfect is to overuse it or to use it simply because we are talking about a time in the distant past.

For example we would not say

The Romans had spoken Latin

but rather

The Romans spoke Latin

because it simply describes a past event, and not an event before and relevant to another past event.

Remember that we only use the past perfect when we want to refer to a past that is earlier than another time in the narrative.





Hello Ajaz ajju,

The past perfect needs a past time context - it must refer to a past time, showing an action or state which is before that past time. However, that context does not need to be in the same sentence. It could be in another sentence, or it could be implied by the topic of discussion.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello, i have a question in mind .
can we use the past perfect with the present ? because i came across these sentence:
1. we had studied six new tenses so far and we are going to learn more this semester.
2.Bob wants to buy a new car. He had owned this one for ten years.
3. linda is still sick. She had had a bad cold for over a week.

is this perhaps aa exception for " historic present" ?!!

Hello nasder,

Perfect forms are dependent on time-relations, and so the context is important, and it is hard to be completely sure when looking at sentences in isolation.

We use the past perfect for actions or events which had an effect in the past. Your first sentence describes an activity which has an effect in the present and so the present perfect would seem to be appropriate:

We have studied six new tenses so far and we are going to learn more this semester.

The same is true for the other two sentences. Where an action or state is still true at the time of speaking, or where it has a result at the time of speaking, we use the present perfect rather than the past perfect. To use the past perfect there needs to be another past time reference.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team




I've learned that the present perfect cannot be used with when-question. How about the past perfect? Is it possible to use it in when-questions? If possible, what kind of context allows it to occur?


Hello K_H,

Most of the time, that's probably true, but I'm not sure I'd say that it's true that the present perfect is never used with 'when'. For example, 'When have I ever lied to you?' is correct. I can't think of a 'when' question that uses the past perfect off the top of my head, but I expect there may be some situations when it would be appropriate.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi teachers,

"Product development of the watch had begun in March 2014 and the team launched a marketing campaign to sell it on 13 June 2015."

The sentence above uses past perfect to tell us that product development comes before its launch.

My question: Is that necessary to use past perfect here? (1) It is not important to tell the sequence of the two actions (product development and launching) in the sentence. Of course a product needs to be developed before launching. (2) Specific time is given for the two actions (March 2014 and 13 June 2015). No ambiquity is there at all. (3) Using simple past tense for both actions can do the job.

Please kindly advise. Thank you.

Hello David,

You are right – it is not necessary to use the past perfect here and the past simple would work just as well for the reasons you describe.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks a lot, Kirk :-)

Hello teacher, sorry for asking a lot of questions,, could you please look at this: IF am a chef and i go to interview with a new restaurant: he asked me about my previous jobs so any of these sentences are better and which one is completely wring,thank you in advance
- I worked as a pizza chef at PIzza Hot for 2 years.
-I had worked as a pizza chef at Pizza Hot for 2 years.
-I had been working as a pizza chef at Pizza Hot for 2 years.

Hello ronaz2015,

The first sentence is the best choice. The other two sentences would only be used if you were also referring to another past time and to changes. For example:

I had worked as a pizza chef at Pizza Hot for 2 years before I got promoted to Head Chef.

I had been working as a pizza chef at Pizza Hot for 2 years by that time.

Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team