Level: beginner

Comparative adjectives

We use comparative adjectives to show change or make comparisons:

This car is certainly better, but it's much more expensive.
I'm feeling happier now.
We need a bigger garden.

We use than when we want to compare one thing with another:

She is two years older than me.
New York is much bigger than Boston.
He is a better player than Ronaldo.
France is a bigger country than Britain.

When we want to describe how something or someone changes we can use two comparatives with and:

The balloon got bigger and bigger.
Everything is getting more and more expensive.
Grandfather is looking older and older

We often use the with comparative adjectives to show that one thing depends on another:

The faster you drive, the more dangerous it is. 
(= When you drive faster, it is more dangerous.)

The higher they climbed, the colder it got. 
(= When they climbed higher, it got colder.)

Comparative adjectives 1

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Comparative adjectives 2

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Superlative adjectives

We use the with superlative adjectives:

It was the happiest day of my life.
Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
That’s the best film I have seen this year.
I have three sisters: Jan is the oldest and Angela is the youngest

Superlative adjectives 1

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Superlative adjectives 2

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How to form comparative and superlative adjectives

We usually add –er and –est to one-syllable words to make comparatives and superlatives:

old older oldest
long longer longest

If an adjective ends in –e, we add –r or –st:

nice nicer nicest
large larger largest

If an adjective ends in a vowel and a consonant, we double the consonant:

big bigger biggest
fat fatter fattest

If an adjective ends in a consonant and –y, we change –y to –i and add –er or –est:

happy happier happiest
silly sillier silliest

We use more and most to make comparatives and superlatives for most two syllable adjectives and for all adjectives with three or more syllables:

careful more careful  most careful
interesting more interesting  most interesting

However, with these common two-syllable adjectives, you can either add –er/–r and –est/–st or use more and most:

common
cruel
gentle
handsome
likely
narrow
pleasant
polite
simple
stupid

He is certainly handsomer than his brother.
His brother is handsome, but he is more handsome.
She is one of the politest people I have ever met.
She is the most polite person I have ever met.

The adjectives good, bad and far have irregular comparatives and superlatives:

good better best
bad worse worst
far farther/further  farthest/furthest
How to form comparative and superlative adjectives

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Basic level

Comments

Hello once again,

Thank you for the answer. I am sorry that I confused you; I have a better example now: ''The responsible people'' and ''The people responsible.'' I remembered only this adjective, which changes the meaning when moved. Are there more of this type (dependent-on-position adjectives)?

Thank you.

Hello JamlMakav,

I'm afraid I'm not familiar with a list of adjectives like this, but you might want to read through the Cambridge Dictionary's page on Adjective position.

It also might be useful to search for pages on adjectives in 'attributive' or 'predicative' position -- these are the technical terms for position before a noun ('attributive') and after a link verb ('predicative'). This is a slightly different but related topic to what you're asking about here.

I hope this helps you.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,

The context is that Joe is being French even though he is not, and Sarah is using irony. The adjective isn't gradable, so how can she express what I mean?

Sarah to Joe: ''Can't you be more of French?''

Thank you.

Hello MCWSL,

If you take out 'of', the sentence will work. You could also change the verb to 'act' and it will also work (without 'of').

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Kirk,

Thank you for the answer. I am just wondering if this adjective is being used as a gradable adjective even though it is not gradable; for example, in the comparative form, we also use ''more'', as in ''more common''.

Thank you.

Hello MCWSL,

The adjective 'French' usually refers to nationality but it can also mean 'having the characteristics of Frenchness'. WIth this second meaning it is a gradeable adjective. Other nationality adjectives work in a similar way. For example:

I forgot to buy tomatoes and we don't have any cheese either. I'm afraid this meal isn't going to be very Italian!

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello again!!
I would like to ask whether the second "as" in the "as...as" structure can be implied, when there are no modifiers, as well.
Eg. -"I thought Route 6 was the quickest way to get to the airport."
-"Jackson Boulevard can be as fast."

Jason is very energetic. Sonia isn't as/so energetic.

Thank you once again!!

Hello kelly,

Yes, you can leave out the second 'as' phrase. Your two sentences are correct. Good work!

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Wow, that was a really fast response!!!
Thank you very much!!
Kelly

Hello!!

I would like to ask about a structure with "as" in comparison.
It is correct to say the following:
-"I thought Route 6 was the quickest way to get to the airport."
-"Jackson Boulevard can be just as fast."
Obviously, the second "as" is missing because it is implied: "It can be just as fast as Route 6."

How about using the same structure with the second "as" missing with negative sentences that include modifiers "half, quite, nearly, anything like, anywhere near, nothing like, nowhere near"?

Eg. Jason is very energetic. Sonia isn't half/quite/nearly as energetic.

Her brother is very tall. She's nothing like as tall/nowhere near as tall.

Your dress is great. Her dress isn't anything like/ anywhere near as great.

Thank you so much!!
Kelly

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