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this and these

We use this (singular) and these (plural) as pronouns:

  • to talk about people or things near us:

This is a nice cup of tea.
Whose shoes are these?

  • to introduce people:

This is Janet.
These are my friends John and Michael.

Be careful!

We say, This is John and this is Michael. (NOT These are John and Michael.)

  • to begin a conversation on the phone:

Hello, this is David. Can I speak to Sally?

that and those

We use that (singular) and those (plural) as pronouns to talk about things that are not near us:

What's that?
Those are very expensive shoes.
This is our house, and that's Rebecca's house over there.



We also use that to reply to something someone has said:

'Shall we go to the cinema?'  'Yes, that’s a good idea.'
'I've got a new job.'  'That's great.'
'I'm very tired.'  'Why is that?'

Replies with that's 1


Replies with that's 2


With nouns

We can also use this, these, that and those with nouns. We use this and these for people or things near us:

We have lived in this house for twenty years.
Have you read all of these books?

and that and those for people or things that are not near us:

Who lives in that house?
Who are those people?

Demonstratives with nouns




hello sir how are you?
I'm familiar with the rules of "that"
but i hear people say all the time.

1) that's them in the library.
2) that's them in the car about whom i was talking.

my question is according to rules we use "that" for singular that are not near us. why they use "that" here.

does that similar with "it" or dummy construction.

for instance.
it's them they're here.
it's the parents who were protesting.
correct me if I'm mistaken
thanks advanced.

Hello ahmednagar,

These phrases are all in common use. They are examples of non-standard forms which are not, perhaps, entirely grammatically correct but have become accepted through use. They are quite informal and are used in spoken, rather than written, English.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

hi peter

Have you read all of these books?
could i use " did" instead of have - did you read all of these books?

which is the correct way both of these sentence?

Hi taj25,

Both of these are correct. Your question is about the past simple and present perfect forms and you can find pages on each of these, including when they are used, in our grammar section.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hi English Team, I am talking about my work experience: 'I am familiar with every aspect of a design and any kind of engineering drawings - construction and installations. I am able to analyze THESE/THOSE? drawings and coordinate them. ' These or Those? Any other advice? Thank you a lot!

Hello KateKasia,

I would suggest the following:

I am familiar with all aspects of design and all kinds of engineering drawings, including construction and installations. I am able to analyze such drawings and coordinate them.

You could replace 'such' with 'these' but I think 'such' is better here in terms of style.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you very much Peter. May I have one more question? "all aspects of design".
Each time I am confused about "a" and "an" as a word "design" is countable, and I noticed many sentences where it "a", "an" are omitted. Is that because "design" describes discipline? All because we use "of"? Could you give me a clue where to look for an answer?

Thank you again!

Hello KateKasia,

In your sentence you are not talking about any particular design but rather about the field (discipline) of design. This is a general meaning and we do not use any article in this context:

all aspects of literature

all aspects of finance

all aspects of science


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

when I say: " I think that this book is mine" , how is it phrased to be for far book ?
I mean can I say " I think that that book is mine " ?
If it is wrong then what is write ?

Hello Ibrahim Elwy,

'This' and 'that' are very much context dependent. We use 'this' generally when something is close to us and 'that' when it is further away. It is correct to say 'I think that book is mine'.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team