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this and these

We use this (singular) and these (plural) as pronouns:

  • to talk about people or things near us:

This is a nice cup of tea.
Whose shoes are these?

  • to introduce people:

This is Janet.
These are my friends John and Michael.

Be careful!

We say, This is John and this is Michael. (NOT These are John and Michael.)

  • to begin a conversation on the phone:

Hello, this is David. Can I speak to Sally?

that and those

We use that (singular) and those (plural) as pronouns to talk about things that are not near us:

What's that?
Those are very expensive shoes.
This is our house, and that's Rebecca's house over there.



We also use that to reply to something someone has said:

'Shall we go to the cinema?'  'Yes, that’s a good idea.'
'I've got a new job.'  'That's great.'
'I'm very tired.'  'Why is that?'

Replies with that's 1


Replies with that's 2


With nouns

We can also use this, these, that and those with nouns. We use this and these for people or things near us:

We have lived in this house for twenty years.
Have you read all of these books?

and that and those for people or things that are not near us:

Who lives in that house?
Who are those people?

Demonstratives with nouns




Hello KateKasia,

In your sentence you are not talking about any particular design but rather about the field (discipline) of design. This is a general meaning and we do not use any article in this context:

all aspects of literature

all aspects of finance

all aspects of science


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

when I say: " I think that this book is mine" , how is it phrased to be for far book ?
I mean can I say " I think that that book is mine " ?
If it is wrong then what is write ?

Hello Ibrahim Elwy,

'This' and 'that' are very much context dependent. We use 'this' generally when something is close to us and 'that' when it is further away. It is correct to say 'I think that book is mine'.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks so much. I'm learning something new everyday.

Hello Team!
I'm sorry for a noob question,

"- to introduce ourselves to begin a conversation on the phone:

Hello, this is David, Can I speak to Sally?"

Can I replace THIS with IT? Since I'm going to begin a conversation? Thanks!!:)

Hi, I found a rule that we should use: "this is .....".
It is more common and natural:)

Hello Hazardous,

It's possible to say 'it's David' instead, but it's far more common to say 'this is David'.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

I have noticed this question has been asked quite a few times. And maybe both are interchangeable. I'm sorry. Although I only wanted to know the usage of It and This with respect to 'beginning' a conversation on the phone. Can we use IT when we begin a conversation ...? Thank you so much.

Hello again Hazardous,

As I said above, 'this is ...' is really the most common way to identify yourself at the beginning of a phone conversation. In a face-to-face conversation, there are many different ways to begin one.

If you have some specific conversation in mind, please let us know and we'll let you know what we think.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Hazardous,

Great - I'm glad that helped you. And yes, you're right - a band or team is considered a thing and we say 'what' for that reason. Good work!

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team