Level: intermediate

We can use a modal verb with have and a past participle:

Subject Modal have Past participle  
They will have arrived by now.
You might have seen the film.
Jack and Jill would have been late.

We use a modal verb with have:

  • to refer back from the present:

It's nearly eight o'clock. They will have arrived by now.

  • to refer back from a point of time in the past:

We were very worried. We thought someone might have taken the car.

  • to refer back from a point of time in the future:

We won't eat until they arrive. They might not have had supper.

  • to refer to past time:

You should have helped her when she asked.
They might have got lost. Nobody knows where they are.

Modal verbs with have 1

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Modal verbs with have 2

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Comments

Hello
question in relative pronoun "when":
time when we spent with the right person
in this example "when" here is right or wrong
is the word "time" refer to a time or it's just a word and can't put when??
I hope you replay
thanks

Hello alist123

We sometimes use the relative pronoun 'when' with words that express time (for example, 'day', 'week', 'hour', 'time', etc.), but often we do not. I would recommend 'time we spent' instead of 'time when we spent'.

You can read a little more about this in the last section on our Relative pronouns and relative clauses page.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Dear Kirk sir,

I asked you two questions regarding "should have", whether it is to be used in future. You explained "should have" is also used to talk about probability in future. But sir, kindly see the following questions and answers, here "would have" is used to show probability in future. As far as I know, "would have" is used in past contexts. Kindly enlighten me on it.

Que:Will she have gone?

Ans: No, she wouldn't have.

Que: Will your brother have returned from Canada?

Ans: No, he wouldn't have.

Thank you.

Hello Aniyanmon

These replies don't sound correct to me. Perhaps there is some context in which it would make sense to reply with 'would have' here, but I can't think of one off the top of my head.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks a lot Kirk sir for the clarification.

Dear Sir,

Kindly tell me whether the following uses of "should have" (in future is correct.)

I should have completed the course by 2021.

My sister should have arrived by next week.

Thank you.

Hello Aniyanmon

Yes, both of those sentences are grammatically correct.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks a lot sir.

Dear Sir,

I have seen the following question and answer in a spoken English book. Kindly tell me whether the answer of the question is correct. As far as I know "should have" is used as an advice. For example "You should have gone there". It is used in past situations. But in the following answer "should have" is used in a future situation. How is it possible sir?. So can I say now "today evening I should have left this place" (suppose now the time is 10 'o clock in the morning).

Que:Will you have passed tenth class examination by the next year?

Ans:Yes, I should have passed it by that time.

Thank you.

Hello Aniyanmon

As is explained just before the first exercise above, a modal verb plus 'have' can be used to refer back from a time in the future. In the question and answer you cite from the book, that future time is 'by next year' (or 'by that time'). So it is correct here.

Note that in this case, 'should' is not giving advice -- it is used to talk about probability (see the Certainty section on that page for more examples).

Thanks for asking this question on a more appropriate page.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

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