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Relative pronouns and relative clauses

Level: beginner

The relative pronouns are:

Subject Object Possessive
who who/whom whose
which which whose
that that -

We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. Relative clauses tell us more about people and things:

Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
This is the house which Jack built.
Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium.

We use:

  • who and whom for people
  • which for things
  • that for people or things.

Two kinds of relative clause

There are two kinds of relative clause:

1.  We use relative clauses to make clear which person or thing we are talking about:

Marie Curie is the woman who discovered radium.
This is the house which Jack built.

In this kind of relative clause, we can use that instead of who or which:

Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium.
This is the house that Jack built.

We can leave out the pronoun if it is the object of the relative clause:

This is the house that Jack built. (that is the object of built)

Relative pronouns 1

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Relative pronouns 2

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Be careful!

The relative pronoun is the subject/object of the relative clause, so we do not repeat the subject/object:

Marie Curie is the woman who she discovered radium.
(who is the subject of discovered, so we don't need she)

This is the house that Jack built it.
(that is the object of built, so we don't need it)

2.  We also use relative clauses to give more information about a person, thing or situation:

Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
We had fish and chips, which I always enjoy.
I met Rebecca in town yesterday, which was a nice surprise.

With this kind of relative clause, we use commas (,) to separate it from the rest of the sentence.

Be careful!

In this kind of relative clause, we cannot use that:

Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
(NOT Lord Thompson, that is 76, has just retired.)

and we cannot leave out the pronoun:

We had fish and chips, which I always enjoy.
(NOT We had fish and chips, I always enjoy.)

Relative pronouns 3

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Relative pronouns 4

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Level: intermediate

whose and whom

We use whose as the possessive form of who:

This is George, whose brother went to school with me.

We sometimes use whom as the object of a verb or preposition:

This is George, whom you met at our house last year.
(whom is the object of met)

This is George’s brother, with whom I went to school.
(whom is the object of with)

but nowadays we normally use who:

This is George, who you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, who I went to school with.

Relative pronouns 5

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Relative pronouns with prepositions

When who(m) or which have a preposition, the preposition can come at the beginning of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany, from who(m) I inherited a bit of money.
We bought a chainsaw, with which we cut up all the wood.

or at the end of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany, who(m) I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw, which we cut all the wood up with.

But when that has a preposition, the preposition always comes at the end:

I didn't know the uncle that I inherited the money from.
We can't find the chainsaw that we cut all the wood up with.

Relative pronouns 6

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when and where

We can use when with times and where with places to make it clear which time or place we are talking about:

England won the World Cup in 1966. It was the year when we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day when the tsunami happened.

Do you remember the place where we caught the train?
Stratford-upon-Avon is the town where Shakespeare was born.

We can leave out when:

England won the World Cup in 1966. It was the year we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day the tsunami happened.

We often use quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns: 

all of which/whom most of which/whom many of which/whom
lots of which/whom a few of which/whom none of which/whom
one of which/whom two of which/whom etc.

She has three brothers, two of whom are in the army.
I read three books last week, one of which I really enjoyed.
There were some good programmes on the radio, none of which I listened to.

 

Comments

Hello nbu2316,

In your first example the relative clause is a defining relative clause and refers back to 'stages', as you say. The sentence is rather awkward, however, and does not appear to be particularly well written in my view.

 

In your second example the relative clause is non-defining and refers back to 'several different methods of instruction'. The relative pronoun is the object of the preposition 'of' within the clause, but the phrase 'all of which' is the subject in the relative clause. 

You can read a liitle about phrases such as 'all of which' in the second point under Overview on the relevant wikipedia page:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_relative_clauses

 

Your third example contains a non-defining relative clause which refers back to 'case study', as you say. The relative pronoun 'who' is the subject within the relative clause.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you very much for your explanation. All of the examples are taken from a corpus so that they sometimes really are rather awkward, but, however, I can't change them.

While working, I came across with other examples that confused me. Therefore, I again would like to ask you for help.

One example is in case of the following sentence:

"Further, as speakers use unusual words in a pattern because they resemble other words used in that pattern, that is, by analogy with a more typical word, any pattern is subject to variation so that while it may be said that a certain group of words occur in a certain pattern it can not be said that they are the only ones to occur in that pattern."

Here, I would like to ask, whether the clause introduced by 'that is [...]' is a relative clause or not and if so, that does it refers to?
I have many clauses of this type in my corpus and I don't know whether I have to mark them as relative clauses or not.

Thank you very much in advance! Kind regards, Nehir.

Hello again nbu2316,

The phrase 'that is' here does not introduce a relative clause. It's a variant on the phrase 'that is to say', which means something like 'in other words'. It's a lexical device used to introduce a paraphrase or a clarification.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Team,

Please let me have some questions:

1. I had an uncle in Germany, from who(m) I inherited a bit of money.

In sentence 1, why are we using comma (,) in this sentence?
Is it correct if we replace "a" by "the" in this sentence so we will have "I had the uncle in Germany, from who(m) I inherited a bit of money."

2. I didn't know the uncle that I inherited the money from.

In sentence 2, why are we using "the" instead of "a" in this sentence?

In these cases, I am getting confused when to use "a" or "the" and when to put comma.

Please help me understand.

Thank you!

Regards,
Phong

Hello phong,

The reason a comma is used in your first example is that the construction beginning 'from whom' is a non-defining relative clause. In other words, it adds extra information but does not identify the subject (uncle).

If the sentence did not have a comma it would suggest that you have several uncles in Germany and are identifying which uncle you are talking about.

We would not use the here as the speaker is clearly introducing their uncle for the first time.

 

In your second example, the is used because the speaker has clearly spoken about the uncle before. Your first mention would be to let the listener know you have an uncle in Germany; after than you might tell them that you didn't know that uncle.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Sir,
I have helped her, which is a good thing. Is the second sentence a relative clause or not ?
If yes then can
I use 'that instead of which' in the second sentence ?
I think If I write the same sentence with 'that', I need to write it seperately as one sentence.
Like this: I have helped her. That is a good thing or I have helped her and that is a good thing.
But If the second sentence is a relative clause which I'm not sure about why can't I write the two clauses as one sentence using 'that instead of which' ?

Here are a few more sentence examples.
She is a good girl which is way I like her.
She is a good girl that is way I like her.

I think I need use a comma in both sentences and the word 'and' in the second one. but why ?

Four injured were rushed to hospital yesterday three of whom have died.

Four injured were rushed to hospital yesterday three of them have died.

Now again I think I need to use the conjuction 'and' in the second sentence or I could write it seperately as one sentence but can I not write the way I have written them above ?

Hi SonuKumar,

  • I have helped her, which is a good thing.

Yes, the underlined part is a relative clause. But, it's a non-defining relative clause (see point 2, above, and this page for more explanation and examples. It's different from the other type, defining relative clauses, described in point 1, above).

For this type of relative clause, that cannot be used instead of which

  • I have helped her. That is a good thing. 
  • I have helped her and that is a good thing.

Both the sentences above are correct. But in these sentences, that is a subject pronoun (not a relative pronoun like which). 

  • She is a good girl, which is why I like her.
  • She is a good girl, and that is why I like her.

Yes! The corrections you suggested are right. I've made the corrections in the sentences above. Here again, in the first sentence there is a non-defining relative clause: which is why I like her. Notice that there must be a comma before a non-defining relative clause.

  • Four injured were rushed to hospital yesterday, three of whom have died.
  • Four injured were rushed to hospital yesterday and three of them have died.

You're right that and is needed in the second sentence. In the first one, it's correct if the comma is added (to make the correct structure for the non-defining relative clause, underlined).

Does that make sense?

Best wishes,

Jonathan

The LearnEnglish Team

Yes Sir, It does make sense and clarify the matter.
Thank you very much indeed for your help!

one or other means one of two people or things, when it does not matter which you are referring to - Would the formal version be "it does not matter to which you are referring"

She sits on a “reputation committee”, a subgroup of the company’s executive committee, which is chaired by the chief executive. - does "which" refer to "reputation committee" or the "executive committee"?

The government has received more than 2,000 submissions, mostly opposing the proposal. - As I understand the use of relative clauses and participial clauses, when we are referring to the noun which is at the end of a sentence, it would be better to use relative clauses rather than participal clauses, which tend to refer to the whole of the previous sentence. Since "most opposing the proposal" refers to the submissions, would it be better to say "which mostly oppose the proposal".

Thanks for your help teachers.

Hi Anisha00329,

I'll try to answer your questions in turn.

  1. Yes – that would be a very formal way to say one or other. But, note that one or other isn't marked for any particular style, so it's perfectly fine to use it in formal writing or speaking. Also, it's just a phrase (i.e. part of a sentence), while your suggestion is a full sentence.
  2. It refers to reputation committee. But, if you deleted the comma after executive committee, then it would refer to executive committee. So, the comma makes a small but important difference!
  3. Yes! It would be better to use the relative clause here, for the reason that you said.

I hope that helps!

Best wishes,

Jonathan

The LearnEnglish Team

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