Level: beginner

this and these

We use this (singular) and these (plural) as pronouns:

  • to talk about people or things near us:

This is a nice cup of tea.
Whose shoes are these?

  • to introduce people:

This is Janet.
These are my friends John and Michael.

Be careful!

We say, This is John and this is Michael. (NOT These are John and Michael.)

  • to begin a conversation on the phone:

Hello, this is David. Can I speak to Sally?

that and those

We use that (singular) and those (plural) as pronouns to talk about things that are not near us:

What's that?
Those are very expensive shoes.
This is our house, and that's Rebecca's house over there.

Demonstratives

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We also use that to reply to something someone has said:

'Shall we go to the cinema?'  'Yes, that’s a good idea.'
'I've got a new job.'  'That's great.'
'I'm very tired.'  'Why is that?'

Replies with that's 1

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Replies with that's 2

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With nouns

We can also use this, these, that and those with nouns. We use this and these for people or things near us:

We have lived in this house for twenty years.
Have you read all of these books?

and that and those for people or things that are not near us:

Who lives in that house?
Who are those people?

Demonstratives with nouns

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Comments

hi
everything is much more easy after working on grammar section
exercises are very helpfol

 great thank you

This is useful!

thank u

Hi,
can somebody tell me, are there any (principal) different between english british and english american??
 

Hi!
There are differences, but they are mostly quite small and nothing to worry about. I could write a lot about this, but here are the essentials:

  • Formal written British and American English are almost identical. There are some small differences in spoken language.
  • There are many Englishes in different countries (British, American, Caribbean, Indian, Australian, South African etc.), but there are also different Englishes within countries. In Britain, there are differences between the English spoken in the East Midlands, Scotland, the West Country etc. Sometimes the language differences within a country are bigger than the differences between different countries!
  • In general, there are very small grammatical differences between different Englishes.
  • There are often some differences in vocabulary, but these are usually quite small, perhaps a few dozen words. Often people will understand different forms of English, even if they only use one themselves. For example, Americans say 'parking lot' and British people say 'car park', but they will understand the other way of describing it, so there is no problem with communication.
  • The biggest differences tend to be accents and even native speakers can have problems with a strong accent they are not familiar with.
  • There are also some minor differences in punctuation and the way of writing numbers.

Here are some pages on LearnEnglish that can help you with this area. An exercise on British and American English. A video about some of the differences between British and American English. I hope that helps!
Adam
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you. That helps a lot. I always wondered about this question.

Every lesson it´s more advanced

so glad

Very good!!

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