English clauses always have a subject:

His father has just retired. Was a teacher. > He was a teacher.
I’m waiting for my wife. Is late. > She is late.
Look at the time! Is half past two.> It’s half past two.

except for the imperative (see more)

Go away.
Play it again please.

If we have no other subject we use there or it.

there

We use there as a dummy subject with part of the verb be followed by a noun phrase. (see Clauses, sentences and phrases):

• to introduce a new topic:

There is a meeting this evening. It will start at seven.
There has been an accident. I hope no one is hurt.

• with numbers or quantities:

There was a lot of rain last night.
There must have been more than five hundred in the audience.

• to say where something is:

There used to be a playground at the end of the street.
There are fairies at the bottom of the garden.
I wonder if there will be anyone at home.

• with an indefinite pronoun or expressions of quantity and the to-infinitive:

There is nothing to do in the village.
There was plenty to read in the apartment
There was nothing to watch on television.
There is a lot of work to do

If we want to show the subject of the to-infinitive we use for:

There is nothing for the children to do in the village.
There was plenty for us to read in the apartment
There was nothing for them to watch on television.
There is a lot of work for you to do.

• with an indefinite pronoun or expressions of quantity and an -ing verb:

There is someone waiting to see you.
There were a lot of people shouting and waving.

We use a singular verb if the noun phrase is singular:

There is a meeting this evening. It will start at seven.
There was a lot of rain last night.
There is someone waiting to see you.

We use a plural verb if the noun phrase is plural:

There are more than twenty people waiting to see you.
There were some biscuits in the cupboard.
There were a lot of people shouting and waving.
 

It

We use it to talk about:

• times and dates:

It’s nearly one o’clock.
It’s my birthday.

• weather:

It’s raining.
It’s a lovely day.
It was getting cold.

• to give an opinion about a place:

It’s very cold in here.
It will be nice when we get home.
It’s very comfortable in my new apartment.

• to give an opinion followed by to-infinitive:

It’s nice to meet you.
It will be great to go on holiday.
It was interesting to meet your brother at last.

• to give an opinion followed by an -ing verb:

It’s great living in Spain.
It’s awful driving in this heavy traffic.
It can be hard work looking after young children.

  

Using "it" to talk about people

We use it to talk about ourselves:

• on the telephone:

Hello. It’s George.

• when people cannot see us:

[Mary knocks on door] It’s me. It’s Mary.

We use it to talk about other people:

• when we point them out for the first time:

Look. It’s Sir Paul McCartney.
Who’s that? I think it’s John’s brother.

• when we cannot see them and we ask them for their name:

[telephone rings, we pick it up] Hello. Who is it?
[someone knocks on door. We say:] Who is it

 

Task 1

 Exercise

Task 2

 Exercise

Comments

 Hi ,I'm new here and I would like to now if I can print the grammar leasons and if I can how to do it:)

Hello andaadriana
Welcome to LearnEnglish!
Yes, you can print the grammar explanations by clicking where it says printer-friendly version just above the comments. If there is an exercise included on the page it will print the last question number you clicked on.
I hope this helps
All the best
helen
The Learn English Team     

Hello ,I want to learn english. Wath  can I begining and use this site that is best way teaching. I am learninig spanish, but all of time I mix together.

thank you

Hello shirina

Welcome to LearnEnglish! I think you'll find lots to do here that will help you.

Could you tell me a little about your English study please? What are your English language goals? Which skills and language points would you like to practice and develop?
Let me know and I will be happy to suggest some activities and exercises to get you started.

In the meantime you might like to try out a few different exercises and games to see how you get on. You may like to listen to Elementary Podcasts, or play some grammar games or vocabulary games.

I hope this helps
All the best
helen
The LearnEnglish Team

hello every one first i want  to say thank u for this site i found alot of information but my problem is how can i start to improve my english by  using this site can any one  help me with this ......regards

 

 

Hello nora

I'm pleased to hear that you are finding the site useful.

Where you should start depends on your own needs and targets. Could you tell me a little about your English study please? Why are you learning and what are your goals? Which skills and language points do you want to improve?
Let me know and I will recommend some activities and exercises to suit you.

By the way, if you scroll down and look at my comment to shirina on 31st May you can find some links for pages that you might like to try out.

All the best
helen
The LearnEnglish Team

hello MSS .helen

iam khalil,

i need learn English skill properly specialty conversation & writing  skills .

please help me to improve this, ( what type of activity can help me to do that).

thanks ....

Hello Khalil,

The best way to improve your speaking is to practice as much as possible. To give more information that that, I would have to know your problems in more detail. For example, do you have difficulty with fluency or accuracy? If accuracy, is it in grammar, vocabulary or pronunciation?

It's almost impossible to give you good advice about improving your writing without spending time looking at some examples and I can't to that for everyone on the site. One important area is to be aware of what type of writing you need to be able to do. Being able to write a business email needs different skills from being able to write an academic essay.

Best wishes,

Adam

The LearnEnglish Team

hi adam

my name is anah from indonesia and i want to speak english fluently i have lots of problem with vocabulary and pronunciation.

hey everyone....i am pseudo_gal!

i am also someone wanting to improve my english...so let us all join hands and make journey this a remarkable one!!!

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