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Wishes and hypotheses

Level: intermediate


We use the verb wish or the phrase if only to talk about things which we want but which are not possible:

I wish I could see you next week.
If only we could stop for a drink.
I wish we had a bigger house.
They are always busy. If only they had more time.
John was very lazy at school. Now he wishes he had worked harder.

We use wish and if only with past tense forms:

  • We use past tense modals would and could to talk about wishes for the future:

I don't like my work. I wish I could get a better job.
That's a dreadful noise. I wish it would stop.
I always have to get home early. If only my parents would let me stay out later.

I don't like this place. I wish I lived somewhere more interesting.
These seats are very uncomfortable. I wish we were travelling first class.
I wish I was taller.
John wishes he wasn't so busy.
I'm freezing. If only it wasn't so cold.

  • After I/he/she/it, we can use were instead of was:

I wish I was/were taller.
John wishes he wasn't/weren't so busy.
I'm freezing. If only it wasn't/weren't so cold.

  • We use the past perfect to talk about wishes for the past:

I wish I had worked harder when I was at school.
Mary wishes she had listened to what her mother told her.
I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month.

Wishes 1


Wishes 2


Hypotheses (things we imagine)


When we are talking about hypotheses, we use expressions like:

what if ... ? in case suppose (that) supposing (that) imagine (if/that)

We use these expressions:

We should phone them in case they are lost.
Those steps are dangerous. Suppose someone has an accident.

Imagine you won the lottery. What would you do with the money?
What if he lost his job? What would happen then?

Suppose you hadn't passed your exams. What would you have done?
What if he had lost his job? What would his wife have said?

Modal verbs

We use modals would and could for a hypothesis about the present or future:

We can't all stay in a hotel. It would be very expensive.
Drive carefully or you could have an accident.

We use would in the main clause and the past tense in a subordinate clause for a hypothesis about the present or future:

I would always help someone who really needed help.
I would always help someone if they really needed it.

We use modals with have to talk about something that did not happen in the past:

I didn't see Mary, or I might have spoken to her.
It's a pity Jack wasn't at the party. He would have enjoyed it.
Why didn't you ask me? I could have told you the answer.

We use would have in the main clause and the past perfect in a subordinate clause to talk about something that did not happen in the past:

I would have helped anyone who had asked me.
I would have helped you if you had asked me.

Hypotheses 1


Hypotheses 2




Hi Syed sami ul haq,

There is a very old/archaic form which used 'would that' in place of 'wish', as in sentences like this:

I would that he were with me now! (in modern English: 'I wish he were with me now!')

However, this is not used in modern English and is found only in old literary texts.

We would use 'hope' rather than 'wish' in your second example:

I hope (that) your draft report will be accepted / is accepted.

I don't understand your third question. To which sentence are you referring when you say 'here'? If you are referring to the example with the report then, as I said, we would not use 'wish' in that example.

I hope that answers your questions.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Hi sir,
Could you plz explain how we will write about present hypothesis.....I have read about past hypothesis and future hypothesis,but not about present hypothesis....

Hi Learner S,

I'm not entirely sure what you mean by 'present hypothesis'.  There are many ways of talking about unreal present, of speculating about the present and so on.  Could you provide an example of the kind of meaning you have in mind, and then we'll try to help you to express it?

Thank you,



The LearnEnglish Team

In the example
"Those steps are dangerous. Suppose someone has an accident." I have a doubt (usage of "has" with "someone"), Can you please explain what is the difference between these two sentences. 
1. What if someone have no car insurance.  (Does it mean "What if someone does not have a car insurance").
2. Those steps are dangerous. Suppose someone have an accident.

Hello Ridham!
We always use has with someone; someone is singular. Sentences 1. and 2. are both wrong, and should use has - although "What if someone does not have a car insurance" is correct.
Jeremy Bee
The LearnEnglish Team

But doesn't is mostly used for plural so how can we use doesn't with singular
.thanku for your reply

Hello muntaziri,

'Doesn't' is used with third person singular nouns or pronouns.  'Don't' is used with plural nouns.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team