Read the grammar explanation and do the exercise.

Participle clauses

Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause which enables us to say information in a more economical way. We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example:

Waiting for John, I made some tea.

Waiting for John, the kettle boiled. [This would suggest that the kettle was waiting for John!]

 

Forming participle clauses

Participle clauses can be formed with the present participle (-ing form of the verb) or past participle (third form of the verb). Participle clauses with past participles have a passive meaning:

Shouting loudly, Peter walked home. [Peter was shouting]

Shouted at loudly, Peter walked home. [Someone was shouting at Peter]

If we wish to emphasise that one action was before another then we can use a perfect participle (having + past participle):

Having won the match, Susan jumped for joy.

Having been told the bad news, Susan sat down and cried.

 

 

The meaning and use of participle clauses

Participle clauses give information about condition, reason, result or time. For example:

 

CONDITION (in place of an if-condition):

Looked after carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

Compare: If you look after it carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

 

REASON (in place of words like so or therefore):

Wanting to speak to him about the contract, I decided to arrange a meeting.

Compare: I wanted to speak to him about the contract so I decided to arrange a meeting.

 

RESULT (in place of words like because or as a result):

I had no time to read my book, having spent so long doing my homework.

Compare: I had no time to read my book because I had spent so long doing my homework.

 

TIME (in place of words like when, while or as soon as):

Sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

Compare: While I was sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

Comments

Sir,
What were the subtitutions taking place in
the England football team last night.

Why not 'Taken place' instead of 'Taking
place' in the sentence while the action is
already complete ?

But In this sentence we use past participle
like this 'What were the subtitutions made
or done by the England team.

is it because 'Make and Do' are transtive
verbs, while 'Take place' is not ?

Hello SonuKumar,

As you say, 'take place' is an intransitive verb so it would not be used with a passive meaning.

Please note that we generally do not deal with sentences taken from elsewhere as we are not responsible for their content or language choices. We're happy to comment on our own material and explanations, of course.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Sirs,
"There is love enough in this world for everybody, if people will just look."

I copied the sentence from the website. I have two questions.
1. According to grammar rules, whenever an 'IF" clause comes second, we do not put a comma, but we have in the sentence. Why?
2. In which situations, can we use 'IF' in future tenses?

Hi qayum2s,

When 'will' is used after 'if' like this, it typically means either 'be willing to'. Here the idea appears to be that if people were just willing to take the time to look, they would find there is enough love. It's also possible for 'will' to mean something like 'it is true now that' -- for example, 'If you really will help me paint the house, I will wait for you'.

I probably would have left out the comma in that sentence; I'm afraid I don't know how to explain that writer's choice other than to note that there is quite a bit of variation in punctuation.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Sir,
"Peter M is a good teacher" "so is Kirk."
Now is the following sentence correct? If not what is the alternative way to tell the same idea using 'so' in short answers?
"I have been to New York" " so have London."

Hello quayum2s,

The correct way to express this is a little different:

I have been to New York and to London too/as well.

 

We can use 'so' when we want to provide an alternative to the subject of the first sentence:

I have been to New York.

So has Bob. / Bob has been to New York too.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Sir,

I want to ask the following sentences if they are correct or not, and they seem to
be unnatural or wrong.
'The man I was talking to was the man I was in debt to'.
'The man I was talking to was the one/man I owed to.'

Hi qayum2s,

The first sentence is correct and sounds natural to me. The second one just needs the word 'money' (or some other object) after the verb 'owed', since it is generally a transitive verb (which means it requires a direct object): 'the man I owed money to'.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you, Sir, very much, please could you tell me what kind of sentences they are? Complex or compound-complex.

Hello qayum2s,

We have a page on various different sentence structures. You can find it here. Take a look at the information there and see if you can identify the types of sentences yourself. We'll be happy to tell you if you are correct.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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