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Count nouns

Count nouns have two forms: singular and plural.

Singular count nouns refer to one person or thing:

a teacher a book a wish an idea

Plural count nouns refer to more than one person or thing:

teachers books wishes ideas

Singular count nouns

Singular count nouns cannot be used alone. They must have a determiner:

the English teacher that book a wish my latest idea
Singular count nouns 1


Singular count nouns 2


Plural count nouns

We usually add –s to make a plural noun:

book > books
school > schools
friend > friends

We add –es to nouns ending in –s, –ch, –sh, –ss, –x and –o:  

class > classes
watch > watches
gas > gases
wish > wishes
box > boxes
potato > potatoes

When a noun ends in a consonant and –y, we make the plural with –ies:

lady > ladies
country > countries
party > parties

If a noun ends in a vowel and –y, we simply add –s:

boy > boys
day > days
play > plays

Some common nouns have irregular plurals:

man > men
woman > women
child > children
person > people
foot > feet
Plural count nouns 1


Plural count nouns 2


Plural count nouns do not have a general determiner when they refer to people or things in general:

Computers are very expensive.
Do you sell old books?

But they may have a specific determiner:

Those computers are very expensive.
The books in that shop are very expensive. 
Her sisters live there.

or a quantifier:

some new books a few teachers lots of good ideas

or a numeral:

two new books three wishes
Plural count nouns 3


Plural count nouns 4


Plural count nouns 5




Hello. Is the following sentence correct? If so, could you please explain more about that?

- The projects carried out all over the country is the result of hard work.

Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam,

No, I'm afraid that is not correct. 'projects' is plural and so the verb 'is' should also be plural ('are').

All the best,


The LearnEnglish Team

Sir, this is the comment my friend posted on the WhatsApp group on the occasion of Women's day : Happy Women's day to the spouses of my friends. Now I can very well understand the intended meaning of the message, and the reason he used the plural 'spouses' - each friend having one ! My question : Can the message also mean the spouses of each friend - as if each friend has more than one wife - as he has written 'spouses of friends', though he doesn't intend it. Thank you ! Regards !

Hello dipakrgandhi,

Yes, indeed, that sentence is ambiguous. It could refer to one or many.

All the best,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Team.
I'm in a restaurant. Which one is correct?
- I'd like (a - no article) chicken, please. Not some.
Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam,

If you say 'I'd like a chicken' then you mean a whole chicken. You'd perhaps say this in a shop, but not a restaurant.

If you say 'I'd like chicken' then you are making a general statement about the kind of food you are interested in. The waiter might respond by showing you all the possible options which include chicken.

If you want to ask for a particular version of a dish which can have different ingredients then you would usually use 'the': 'I'd like the chicken' in the sense of 'not the beef or the fish options'.

If you are talking about particular dishes then you can use either 'the' or no article: 'I'd like (the) chicken in lemon sauce', 'I'd like (the) chicken tandoori' etc.



The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Peter. Please be patient with me.
You said, "If you say 'I'd like a chicken' then you mean a whole chicken. You'd perhaps say this in a shop, but not a restaurant."
When I'm to pay for the food I have had at a restaurant, I have to pay for the amount or number of things I have eaten. So how to talk about the amount of "chicken" or numbers of "chickens" I had?
I hope you get what I mean.
Thank you.

Hi I want to learn something.
I have been learning prepositional phrases act as an adjective.
For example,"book on the table."
But I am confused when I am trying to write following sentence
"I am going to school on Monday"
Is it also adjectival phrase? or different thing? Could you explain
Thanks a lot

Hello Nevı,

Prepositional phrases can have adjectival or adverbial functions.


As adjectives, prepositional phrases answer the question 'Which one?'

the book on the table

the man by the car


As adverbs, prepositional phrases answer the questions 'Where?', 'When?', 'Who with?' or 'How?'

dance in the club

meet on Saturday

go with my friend


In your example, on Monday has an adverbial function.



The LearnEnglish Team

Got that teacher.But I don't understand one thing.
I want to explain in this example sentence;
"China is collaborated with Argentina on buying Vaccines."

Here, Is "with Argentina" an adverb? or a prepositional object? My book says prepositional object?
İn Your example sentence (go with my friend), you said 'with my friend' acts an adverb

-Could you tell me please How I can seperate prepositional object and prepositional adverb?
Thank you
(I am working English by myself)