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The definite article: 'the'

Level: beginner

The definite article the is the most frequent word in English.

We use the definite article in front of a noun when we believe the listener/reader knows exactly what we are referring to:

  • because there is only one:

The Pope is visiting Russia.
The moon is very bright tonight.
Who is the president of France?

This is why we use the definite article with a superlative adjective:

He is the tallest boy in the class.
It is the oldest building in the town.

  • because there is only one in that context:

We live in a small house next to the church. (= the church in our village)
Dad, can I borrow the car? (= the car that belongs to our family)
When we stayed at my grandmother’s house, we went to the beach every day. (= the beach near my grandmother’s house)
Look at the boy over there. (= the boy I am pointing at)

  • because we have already mentioned it:

A young man got a nasty shock when he tried to rob a jewellery shop in Richmond. The man used a heavy hammer to smash the windows in the shop.

We also use the definite article:

  • to say something about all the things referred to by a noun:

The wolf is not really a dangerous animal. (= Wolves are not really dangerous animals.)
The kangaroo is found only in Australia. (= Kangaroos are found only in Australia.)
The heart pumps blood around the body. (= Hearts pump blood around bodies.)

We use the definite article in this way to talk about musical instruments:

Joe plays the piano really well.
She is learning the guitar.

  • to refer to a system or service:

How long does it take on the train?
I heard it on the radio.
You should tell the police.

The definite article the 1


The definite article the 2


The definite article the 3



Level: intermediate

We can also use the definite article with adjectives like rich, poor, elderly and unemployed to talk about groups of people: 

Life can be very hard for the poor.
I think the rich should pay more taxes.
She works for a group to help the disabled.



Level: beginner

The definite article with names

We do not normally use the definite article with names:

William Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.
Paris is the capital of France.
Iran is in Asia.

But we do use the definite article with:

  • countries whose names include words like kingdom, states or republic:
the United Kingdom the Kingdom of Bhutan
the United States the People's Republic of China
  •  countries which have plural nouns as their names:
the Netherlands the Philippines
  • geographical features, such as mountain ranges, groups of islands, rivers, seas, oceans and canals:
the Himalayas the Canaries the Atlantic (Ocean) the Amazon the Panama Canal
  • newspapers:
The Times The Washington Post
  • well-known buildings or works of art:
the Empire State Building the Taj Mahal the Mona Lisa
  • organisations:
the United Nations the Seamen's Union
  • hotels, pubs and restaurants:
the Ritz the Ritz Hotel the King's Head the Déjà Vu

But note that we do not use the definite article if the name of the hotel or restaurant is the name of the owner:

Brown's Brown's Hotel Morel's Morel's Restaurant
  • families:
the Obamas the Jacksons
The definite article with names 1


The definite article with names 2


The definite article with names 3


The definite article with names 4




Hello, Sir
+ E.g. Scientists have recently discovered a new species of plant.
I wondered why 'plant' has no articles.
+ Could you please tell me which one is correct:
1. I live Takeo Province.
2. I live in the Takeo province.
3. I live in Takeo province.
4. I live in a Takeo province.
Your explanation is a big help for me.
Best Wishes!

Hello Sokhom,

Of those four options, 3 is the correct one.

As for the other sentence, 'plant' is referring plants in general, not to a specific one or one already mentioned. 'a new species' refers to one particular species that is just now being mentioned, but 'plant' does not.

Hope that helps.

All the best,


The LearnEnglish Team

I really appreciate it! I just know that can see your reply only when I logged in.
Could I write the sentence as below:

- Scientists have recently discovered a new species of a plant.

As I have learned, either 'a/an/the' or 'inflected form (-s)' is used when using a count noun. So, I think 'plant' should be preceded by 'a'.
Please help me! Thank you for your precious time.
Best Wishes!

Hi Sokhom,

I've just answered your question on another page. :)


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello dear team,
When modern coastal fish-farming began 30 years ago, no one was doing things right,------- for the environment --------- the industry's long-term sustainability.
In the blank space, can I use (whether/or)? If not why?
Thank you

Hi Hosseinpour,

Yes! Whether/or works fine.

There is another option - to use either/or. But there's a slight difference in meaning.

  • either A or B - suggests that there are only two possibilities in total (e.g., The medicine may produce side effects, either positive or negative.)
  • whether A or B - means something like 'no matter', and doesn't suggest a limited number of possibilities.

I hope that helps!


The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks a lot sir.

Good evening sir, could you give me further explanation and corretion.. as follows

if referring to

"to say something about all the things referred to by a noun:"

my doubt is

if "the+singular" shows its role as above then what's difference of "the + plural"?

for instances :

A) The planet is circular (planets are circular, referring to all planets)

B) The planets are circular

in my opinions B example seems to have 2 meanings

1. it is also as equal as the meaning of A example.

2. referring to exact planets at which either reader or listener has certainly known

(the last comes from "We use the definite article in front of a noun when we believe the listener/reader knows exactly what we are referring to: ")

am i right? thank you sir

Hi LitteBlueGreat,

Yes, that's right! I would add that the first meaning you mention (to say something about all the things referred to by a noun) is often used in academic or scientific explanations, since it refers to an entire class of things rather than one particular identified thing, just as in the examples above and your example. So, it's often used to explain something about animals, parts of the body, inventions and pieces of technology, for example. It's perhaps less common in ordinary conversation, and your option B would be more common.

I hope that helps.


The LearnEnglish Team

if it's the case, the existence of the wolf, the heart, the planet is merely the representation of all its same group/class... is it right again sir?