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Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. We often use them to avoid repeating the nouns that they refer to. Pronouns have different forms for the different ways we use them. 

Read clear grammar explanations and example sentences to help you understand how pronouns are used. Then, put your grammar knowledge into practice by doing the exercises.  

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I'd like to know how we report conditionals. I know that the 3rd conditional stays the same with no change . so what about the zero, 2nd and 1st conditionals?
To make the question clearer , i'll give some if-sentences and please, just report them .
1- he said " if I am tired, I go to sleep "
2 - he said, " if I had money, i'd buy a car "
3- he said " if I won a lottery I would be happy "
4 he said " if I eat chicken I will be happy "

Hello uchiha itache,

Conditional forms are reported in the same way any other forms are reported:

See here for reporting structures.

See here for reporting structures with that, wh- and if-clauses.

Note that there is often a choice with the verb forms, depending on the context and the intended meaning (if the action is still true or is no longer true, for example).


Your examples could be reported as follows:

He said (that) if he is tired, he goes to sleep / He said (that) if he was tired, he went to sleep

He said (that) if he had money, he'd buy a car / He said (that) if he had had money, he'd have bought a car

He said (that) if he won the lottery he would be happy / He said (that) if he had won the lottery he would have been happy

He said (that) if he eats chicken he will be happy / He said (that) if he ate chicken he would be happy


In each pair, the first sentence tells us that the original speaker's words are still true. The second sentence tells us that the speaker's words were true when he said them but may or may not be true now.

For example, imagine I am reporting the sentence I love you. I can say either of these:

She said she loves me. [she loved me then and she still loves me]

She said she loved me. [she loved me then; there is no information about whether or not she still loves me]



The LearnEnglish Team

I'm so grateful

Dear Staff,

Could you please let me know which of the following is correct? Thank you so much.

【A】If I so much as look at a cake, I gain weight.
【B】If I so much as to look at a cake, I gain weight.
【C】If I so much as looking at a cake, I gain weight.

Hi learning,

Option A is the only correct one here.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello .
What's the difference between historic and historical?
And what's the difference between a history book or historical book ?
And by saying historical film..does it mean a film which shows past events or a film which was made a long time ago ?

Hi uchiha itache,

There's an article on just this topic on this Oxford Dictionary page.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

I have noticed that native speakers use the word "would" for some thing being or happening in future. eg: I would be there.
In other case they also use the word " would" for their desire or preference. eg: I would like a coffee. I would like to be a doctor.
but in Pakistan I read in books some sentences like that " I want to be a Doctor. I will be there. I will buy orange shirt."
Please let me know which one is the correct & natural way in above sentences?

Hello Imran 26,

In general, we use will to talk about a future which we consider likely or real in some way, while we use would to talk about less likely or hypothetical futures. However, we can also use would as a polite form because it is less direct and more tentative. Some phrases, such as would like are now simply polite forms (would like describes the present and is a more polite way to say want, for example, while will like is purely about the future).


In many contexts both will and would are possible and which you use depends upon your intention. For example:

I will buy an orange shirt - in this sentence the speaker is sure of their decision

I would buy an orange shirt - in this sentence the speaker is not sure of their decision or sees it as purely hypothetical. You could add an if-clause to make this clearer:

I would buy an orange shirt if there was one in the shop.


You can read more about these forms on this page.



The LearnEnglish Team

It's me or it's i