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Relative pronouns and relative clauses

Level: beginner

The relative pronouns are:

Subject Object Possessive
who who/whom whose
which which whose
that that -

We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. Relative clauses tell us more about people and things:

Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
This is the house which Jack built.
Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium.

We use:

  • who and whom for people
  • which for things
  • that for people or things.

Two kinds of relative clause

There are two kinds of relative clause:

1.  We use relative clauses to make clear which person or thing we are talking about:

Marie Curie is the woman who discovered radium.
This is the house which Jack built.

In this kind of relative clause, we can use that instead of who or which:

Marie Curie is the woman that discovered radium.
This is the house that Jack built.

We can leave out the pronoun if it is the object of the relative clause:

This is the house that Jack built. (that is the object of built)

Relative pronouns 1

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Relative pronouns 2

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Be careful!

The relative pronoun is the subject/object of the relative clause, so we do not repeat the subject/object:

Marie Curie is the woman who she discovered radium.
(who is the subject of discovered, so we don't need she)

This is the house that Jack built it.
(that is the object of built, so we don't need it)

2.  We also use relative clauses to give more information about a person, thing or situation:

Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
We had fish and chips, which I always enjoy.
I met Rebecca in town yesterday, which was a nice surprise.

With this kind of relative clause, we use commas (,) to separate it from the rest of the sentence.

Be careful!

In this kind of relative clause, we cannot use that:

Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
(NOT Lord Thompson, that is 76, has just retired.)

and we cannot leave out the pronoun:

We had fish and chips, which I always enjoy.
(NOT We had fish and chips, I always enjoy.)

Relative pronouns 3

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Relative pronouns 4

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Level: intermediate

whose and whom

We use whose as the possessive form of who:

This is George, whose brother went to school with me.

We sometimes use whom as the object of a verb or preposition:

This is George, whom you met at our house last year.
(whom is the object of met)

This is George’s brother, with whom I went to school.
(whom is the object of with)

but nowadays we normally use who:

This is George, who you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, who I went to school with.

Relative pronouns 5

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Relative pronouns with prepositions

When who(m) or which have a preposition, the preposition can come at the beginning of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany, from who(m) I inherited a bit of money.
We bought a chainsaw, with which we cut up all the wood.

or at the end of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany, who(m) I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw, which we cut all the wood up with.

But when that has a preposition, the preposition always comes at the end:

I didn't know the uncle that I inherited the money from.
We can't find the chainsaw that we cut all the wood up with.

Relative pronouns 6

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when and where

We can use when with times and where with places to make it clear which time or place we are talking about:

England won the World Cup in 1966. It was the year when we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day when the tsunami happened.

Do you remember the place where we caught the train?
Stratford-upon-Avon is the town where Shakespeare was born.

We can leave out when:

England won the World Cup in 1966. It was the year we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day the tsunami happened.

We often use quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns: 

all of which/whom most of which/whom many of which/whom
lots of which/whom a few of which/whom none of which/whom
one of which/whom two of which/whom etc.

She has three brothers, two of whom are in the army.
I read three books last week, one of which I really enjoyed.
There were some good programmes on the radio, none of which I listened to.

 

Comments

Hello. I'm not clear which of these two sentences is dramatically correct.
1. The works that involve person-to-person interactions...
2. The works that involves person-to-person interactions...
Thank for your explanation in advance.

Hello Nguyen Quoc Cuong

The first one is grammatically correct: the verb 'involve' agrees with the plural noun 'works'. In 2, 'involves' would agree with the subject 'work', but not 'works'.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi, how would you combine these sentences with relative pronouns?

1. Look at that old school. I used to go there.
2. These earrings are lovely. My sister bought them for me.

Thank you!

Hello NisaMsaraa

You could say:

1. Look at the old school that I used to go to.
2. The earrings my sister bought for me are lovely.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

how would you change these into a sentence with relative pronouns?
The person wasn´t Michael. You met him.
I can´t remember the hotel in which we stayed.
Thankssss!

Hello Tamigorositt,

The sentences in the first example can be joined with who or that:

The person who/that you met wasn't Michael.

You could omit the relative pronoun:

The person you met wasn't Michael.

 

Your second example can be rewritten with a relative adverb, not a relative pronoun:

I can't remember the hotel where we stayed.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

How would you change these into a sentence with relative pronouns?
-Micheal announced the results. He had a really loud voice.
-The form with the best results won a cup. The cup was presented by Mr. Cadogan.
Thanks!

Hello GalaxyWolf-Dragon6786

There are different ways you could combine the first one:

Michael, who had a really loud voice, announced the results.
Michael, who announced the results, had a really loud voice.

For the second one I'd say 'The form with the best results won the cup, which was presented by Mr Cadogan.'

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello teachers, are the following sentences correct?
Clara’s dad, who is 78, retired last week.
The fire, which started from faulty wiring, didn’t get put out until 3am.
A few students- who are in 6th grade- planned a party.

Hello Noorsleiman09

The first two are fine, but the third is a bit awkward. Different writers and editors also have different opinions about the use of dashes, so in general I'd avoid them if possible. Instead, I'd write something like 'A few 6th-grade students planned a party'.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

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