December 2 is the United Nation's International Day for the Abolition of Slavery. Did you know that slavery still exists today and is probably much closer to you than you realise?

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Blood and Earth

In his book Blood and Earth, Kevin Bales speaks with Ibrahim, a 23-year-old slave who has worked in a gold mine since he was nine. He is dying. His lungs are filled with liquid caused by the dust and bacteria in the mine. As their conversation ends, Ibrahim turns to Kevin Bales and says, 'I want to be remembered. When my story is written and your book is ready, will you send me a copy? I want to show it to others, to show them that I am not completely useless. I just want to show that something good can come out of my life.'

So what's the connection to you? As you read this article, you are probably using a smartphone, tablet, or laptop. Each device requires minerals – including gold. Perhaps the gold in your electronic device was mined by slaves.

Slavery today

According to the Global Slavery Index 2018, over 40 million people are victims of modern slavery, and of these, 15 million are in forced marriage. Slavery involves violence, physical or psychological, and control – often in the form of threats in order to generate profit. To quote Kevin Bales, 'Slavery is when one person controls another, uses violence to maintain that control and exploits them economically.' This violence may be physical and/or psychological, and the control may be verbal threats – but at the heart of slavery is exploitation and 'ownership' of another human being for profit. Forms of modern slavery include forced labour, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, domestic servitude and forced marriage.

You might be surprised to see forced marriage included above. Sadly, forced marriage involves the same lack of choice, power imbalance, coercion and labour exploitation as other forms of slavery. This also includes forced child marriage – usually of girls, of 17 years or younger.

Slavery behind closed doors

Another form of slavery is domestic servitude. Across the globe, domestic workers, mostly women, migrate abroad to support their families back home. Employment agents in their country of origin promise a generous salary and good working conditions with a caring host family. This, however, may be far from reality. Domestic workers are sometimes forced to work long hours and their passports and mobile phones are taken away. In extreme cases, behind closed doors of private homes, they are locked up, starved, deprived of sleep and often physically and sexually abused. They are trapped, scared and unfamiliar with their new surroundings. Domestic servitude happens globally, including in the UK.

The power of consumer choice

Every item we buy has a back story. From electronics to textiles, from handmade carpets to coffee, tea and chocolate, each of these products might include child or adult slavery. Consider a product as innocent as chocolate. While the chocolate bar itself may have been produced in your country, the cocoa in the chocolate probably came from West Africa, where 60 per cent of the world's cocoa is produced. As you read this, thousands of children and adults live in slave-like conditions on cocoa farms. Unknowingly, your purchase might support slavery. However, consumer demand for ethically-sourced products and services can send a powerful message to producers. Imagine if we all refused to purchase goods that have a back story of slavery. Company sales, and therefore profits, would fall. Look around at items in your home and workplace and ask yourself the simple question, 'Where did this come from and who made it?'

Why didn't I learn about modern slavery at school?

Did you ever learn about modern slavery at school? History lessons may have included the horrific practice of slavery, however, it was probably considered something that was very much 'in the past'. But slavery still exists and it is the everyday reality for millions of people. It takes brave educators to raise awareness of the difficult, upsetting and invisible reality of modern slavery.

The good news is that thousands of individuals and anti-slavery organisations are taking action. One such organisation is The NO Project, which focuses specifically on the education of youth and young adults. 'Youth are the next generation of corporate leaders, policy makers and consumers,' says the founder of The NO Project. 'How we choose to spend our money says a lot about who we are. So, the question is – who are we? And remember, another time, in another place, that enslaved human being could be you.'

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It is really a debate able topic, i myself is suffering from one such kind of slavery, writer of this article mentioned well that we do not get educated in schools about that. In fact, i think our degrees are playing same role for owners of companies as rope to captive a slave. Only way to redue this factor is entrepreneurship. Try to build your own business.

This is an interesting article. This article makes me remembered one woman passing around my house last week. This woman was talking about a woman abusing her just because she is working in their house as domestic worker. Imagine the woman was being paid only #1000 monthly to wash plates every day in the house. The #1000 is just equivalent of $3. She was saying that if not because she doesn't have anything to eat or somebody to support her, she wouldn't have accepted the job. But because she has to have a source of livelihood in order to survive.
This is exactly a modern slavery where people are being paid below their output.

It's so sad to know that many years after the abolition of the slavery it's still praticed nowadays. I've learned from this article the outrage and the sacrifice of the people. I am little bit quiet and I am confident because there are organisations that denounces this practice. I think we gradually abolire definitely

Modern-slavery comes in a diverse way of making things look right but actually it contains deniable of rights. As human, we need to treat others with their rights.

This article is interesting because it's important that people especially the young generation are aware of modern slavery. This is a big issue in our society that needs attention from all of us. It's not just the UN's responsibility but everyone and each of ours. We need to speak out. In my country children and women are victims in their own families because of poverty. Our leaders are greedy and victims have no voices. This sort of article should be published in schools, churches, community centres etc... to raise awareness and hopefully together we can tackle this world's problem.

Hi. Yes we witness modern slavery in my country specially domestic servitude. I hope everyone lives a decent and dignified life and I hope you continue to raise the awareness of human rights.

I've learned that we (not everyone) pretend to be blind about situations that can disturb our days, because when we get to know this type of situations we start judging ourselves about what we are not doing like if we were the ones supposed to make the change, but in another way it's not our fault their situation, neither them right? sometimes it's hard for us to get involved with situations that could compromise us, and getting involved with institutions that are trying to stop modern slavery can be dangerous in many ways, we're afraid to become slaves too! but little changes in our acts every day like thinking about what we are buying or where we are buying can make a difference...So the point is to get conscious about the reality around us and then realize how our little acts can help.

It was very useful article because I learnt many things from this article. This article sadly but at the same time it is true. We ( I mean human ) always wants much better things. For example I have phone and I can call and message and I can many things this phone but if come up new version this phone I would like to buy but why ? just beacuse we vant to show our friends.

I learn from this LearnEnglish website not only about English, but also about fair and justice.

The topic is very important. I did not know that our electronic devices have these minerals. About the cocoa farms, I have watched a report. The conditions that the workers are working with, are so hard. In my country, Syria, a lot of innocent people were taken as slaves bei ISIS too. I can not believe that there ist till nowadays slavery!

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