What are the advantages of learning several languages from an early age? What are the dangers? What’s the best way to teach your child two or more languages simultaneously?

Magazine: Bilingualism

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Being the mother of two potentially bilingual children (the youngest is only three months old) and the teacher of French and English bilingual children, the subject of bilingualism is very important to me. In fact, we have recently moved to China and are now considering multilingualism. But what are the advantages of learning several languages from an early age? What are the dangers? What’s the best way to teach your child two or more languages simultaneously? I don’t suggest I have the answers here, but like most mothers and teachers I certainly have a point of view!

What is a bilingual child?

The way I see it, being bilingual means being able to communicate almost perfectly in two languages and also knowing something about both cultures. If I take the example of my daughter it’s about being able to understand when someone is speaking another language and being able to switch automatically into speaking it with them. At two and a half she has already grasped the concept of ‘Daddy speaks French and Mummy speaks English.' She has even picked up that Bai Yuoine speaks Chinese! I think it’s very important for her to know that the cartoon character Noddy is also called Oui Oui by her friends at playgroup and that Marmite and Cadbury's chocolate exist as well as croissants. This is what makes it possible for her to communicate with the people around her regardless of whether they are French or English.

Why encourage bilingualism?

In our case it is logical that with an English mother and French father our children should be able to speak both languages to communicate, not only with us but with their grandparents and extended family. On a wider scale, learning two or more languages helps children to accept cultures other than their own. If speaking their mother tongue(s) at home and at school is encouraged, they are more likely to enjoy their difference and view difference in general as a positive thing.

How do you raise a bilingual child?

There may be a dominant language and this will normally depend on the country you live in or the language your child uses most at school. However, it will also depend on what language is spoken in the home. We lived in France and spoke French at home but I always speak to my children in English. It’s imperative that the child has consistency. They know that their English auntie will always speak to them in English and that for her to understand them they should speak to her in English.

What are the dangers?

It can be very difficult for people around you to support what you do. Grandparents can be upset if they don’t understand what you’re saying to their grandchild and worry that they will never be able to communicate with them. This is of course highly unlikely and you should stick to your guns.

Another problem we have encountered was when our daughter refused to listen to either of us. A psychologist advised us that as there wasn’t a common language at home between the parents and child, I should stop speaking English and spend the weekend speaking only in French. Thankfully I decided to ignore this piece of advice and persisted with my English!

I also know of one child who had problems at school because his friends made fun of him. His parents eventually gave up speaking English to him. Unfortunately children can be cruel, and differences, whatever they may be, are often a source of bullying. Differences need to be promoted and valued, and celebrations such as the International Mother Language Day help to do just that.

International Mother Language Day

The first Mother Language Day was celebrated internationally on 21 February 2000. However the importance of this date originated in Bangladesh where in 1952 a handful of students, now known as language martyrs, were killed in demonstrations defending Bangla, their mother language. In 1999 UNESCO decided to take this cause to an international scale in order to encourage cultural diversity and worldwide tolerance.

The themes

Each year the celebration is devoted to a different aspect of language. This has ranged from how children learn their literacy skills at school to how to preserve some of the 6,000 languages that exist worldwide. One year was about developing the teaching of mother languages, and in 2002 the celebration helped raise awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions around the world. This year the International Mother Language Day is dedicated to Braille and Sign Language, two non-verbal languages that are an invaluable source of communication for many people around the world.

A multilingual community

It’s essential that we limit alienation throughout the world. By speaking other languages as well as your own, or having two or more mother languages, you can contribute to the creation of a global community. My contribution to this multilingual community is exposing my children to varied cultures and languages, maintaining their mother language, while trying to learn the language of the people around me. Although with my ten or so words of Mandarin I am far from being multilingual!



Language level

Advanced: C1


Where I live,(my home town) some regional languages have so much difference that switching regional to national language often consider as bilingual.

Hello Team,

I'd like to ask two questions about the grammar from two sentence.
First, in this sentence, 'Being the mother of two potentially bilingual children and the teacher of French and English bilingual children, the subject of bilingualism is very important to me. ', the writer starts a clause with a present participle. I think participle clause can be used only if it and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. I'd like to know if I misunderstand the grammar rule here or this sentence is written under other rule.
Second, in the sentence, 'The way I see it, being bilingual means being able to communicate almost perfectly in two languages and also knowing something about both cultures.', the writer uses 'The way I see it, being...' to start it. I'd like to know the grammar about this one.
Thank you so much in advance.

With regards,

Hello Eon

You're right that the general rule is that the participle in participle clauses should generally have the same subject as the verb in the main clause, but, as you've observed here, it is possible to do so. As far as I know, there are no rules about this, but if the misrelated clause creates confusion, then of course I'd recommend not using it.

As for your second question, the first 'being' in that sentence is a gerund (a verbal noun) and the subject of the verb 'means'. Actually, the second 'being' is also a gerund, and it's the complement of the verb 'means'. One way you could test this sentence to see if it's a gerund is to replace the gerund with another noun, e.g. 'The way I see it, bilingual people can communicate almost perfectly in two languages'. That makes sense, which is a good sign that 'being' is also the subject of the clause here.

Hope this helps.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Kirk,

Thank you so much for your kind replay. You give me a crystal explanation about participle clauses and gerund here.
I have two further questions for both.
For the first one, may I consider it as an informal expression, which I should avoid to use in formal writing?
For the second, how should I understand the whole sentence? May I consider it as 'I see it in the way that being...'? If so, 'being...' is the defining clause. Is that correct?
Thank you very much in advance.

My best,

Hello Eon

You're welcome. The first sentence has a neutral register, i.e. it's neither particularly informal nor formal. If anything, it's more formal than informal, so it could be OK in some forms of formal writing.

One way you could rephrase the second sentence would be, 'In my opinion, the definition of a bilingual is someone who can communicate almost perfectly in two languages and who knows something about both cultures'. The way you've proposed to rephrase it doesn't make sense to me (sorry!); I hope this helps you make sense of it.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

I think child has parents who speaks differen language is born to be a translator or interpreter and a cultural fusionist ( sorry, I am not sure about the exact words).

I have known many bilingual people since I moved to Australia. Particularly they can speak both Italian and English. This doesn't happen in my hometown (a small village in Sicily) where people barely know how to speak one language. Of course, the main facts that make people living in a place more likely to be bilingual is multiculturalism and tourism.

I’ve known several bilingual people since I moved to Australia. They are both Italian and English native speakers. In my home town (in Sicily) it’s very difficult to find bilingual speakers because us Italian don’t get good English class at school.

Since I live in Iran I see so many people around myself who have different mother languages. Ethnic diversity and Migration are common reasons why we hear different languages in this country.

There are so many different ethnics living together in Iran like; Arabs, Kurds, Azerian, Lors and all of them have their own mother tongue. besides this language diversity, there is a dominant language name Farsi which is taught and learned in schools and universities.

I live in Belarus. There are two government languages: russian and belarusian. The majority of people in my country use russian. I leant belarusian in school. I can't say that i am bilingual althow this language helped me to learn polish. It was easy because these languages are slavic. They have a lot of common gramma rules, words, structure. English is different. It is a difficult puzzle for me. It is another way of thinking... another culture... another way of life. Althow we are europians. This language is an ocean for me. I didn't realise how deep it is, when I started my learning.