Do the preparation task first. Then read the article and do the exercises.
What is English Language Day?
English Language Day was first celebrated in 2010, alongside Arabic Language Day, Chinese Language Day, French Language Day, Russian Language Day and Spanish Language Day. These are the six official languages of the United Nations, and each has a special day, designed to raise awareness of the history, culture and achievements of these languages.
Why is English Language Day celebrated on 23 April?
This day was chosen because it is thought to be Shakespeare's birthday, and the anniversary of his death. As well as being the English language's most famous playwright, Shakespeare also had a huge impact on modern-day English. At the time he was writing, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English language was going through a lot of changes and Shakespeare's creativity with language meant he contributed hundreds of new words and phrases that are still used today. For example, the words 'gossip', 'fashionable' and 'lonely' were all first used by Shakespeare. He also invented phrases like 'break the ice', 'all our yesterdays', 'faint-hearted' and 'love is blind'. Can you guess what they mean?
The origins of English
The story of the English language began in the fifth century when Germanic tribes invaded Celtic-speaking Britain and brought their languages with them. Later, Scandinavian Vikings invaded and settled with their languages too. In 1066 William I, from modern-day France, became king, and Norman-French became the language of the courts and official activity. People couldn’t understand each other at first, because the lower classes continued to use English while the upper classes spoke French, but gradually French began to influence English. An estimated 45 per cent of all English words have a French origin. By Shakespeare's time, Modern English had developed, printing had been invented and people had to start to agree on 'correct' spelling and vocabulary.
The spread of English
The spread of English all over the world has an ugly history but a rich and vibrant present. During the European colonial period, several European countries, including England, competed to expand their empires. They stole land, labour and resources from people across Africa, Asia, the Americas and Oceania. By the time former British colonies began to gain independence in the mid-20th century, English had become established in their institutions. Many brilliant writers from diverse places across Africa, the Caribbean and Asia had started writing in English, telling their stories of oppression. People from all over the world were using English to talk and write about justice, equality, freedom and identity from their own perspectives. The different varieties of English created through this history of migration and colonisation are known as World Englishes.
More than 1.75 billion people speak English worldwide – that's around 1 in 4 people around the world. English is being used more and more as a way for two speakers with different first languages to communicate with each other, as a 'lingua franca'. For many people, the need to communicate is much more important than the need to sound like a native speaker. As a result, language use is starting to change. For example, speakers might not use 'a' or 'the' in front of nouns, or they might make uncountable nouns plural and say 'informations', 'furnitures' or 'co-operations'.
Are these variations mistakes? Or part of the natural evolution of different Englishes? 'International English' refers to the English that is used and developed by everyone in the world, and doesn't just belong to native speakers. There is a lot of debate about whether International English should be standardised and, if so, how. What do you think? If you're reading this, English is your language too.
I agree with that. The main goal for people for which english isnt their mother language is to communicate with other person, they dont want to sound like native speaker. We live in times when anybody looks on your english level and how your words in english sounds. As I mentioned, they crucial reason to learn english is to make a deal, not to change a mother language on English.
I hope to improve my English skills about listening,reading,speaking and writing in order to get a good salary job when I go back to Shanghai. I must be work hard than young,practice practice and practice until I can use English with confidence!
Now I try to learn English. I practise english everyday. I practise speaking, listening and writing on this website. I think that this website is useful and help me a lot in studying English. I think that B2 level is suitable for me. I can understand what I read, but sometimes listening is a bit difficult for me. I have to listen the audio twice at least to understand it.
I generally speak English with my friend. when I started learning the English language it was difficult for me. in my starting journey, I spoke English in front of the mirror and with objects. I didn't make it a proper sentence so it's hard to speak in front of anyone. after one year of my journey, I tried to speak with my best friend he always supports me whenever I did mistakes he corrected my mistake. still, I'm learning English because every language takes time
Amazing! I like learning English and it makes me feel good.
Actually I don have a lot of people who speak English with, because I live in a Spanish-speaking country, but my wife and I try to communicate each other in English dayly. We chat and text all the time, and at the end of the day we speak a little. This way we improve our knowledge.
I'm glad you enjoyed the article :)
All our yesterdays means our past. For example:
Some of Shakespeare's phrases have become very commonly used, such as the other phrases you mentioned. These have often been added to dictionaries too. But all our yesterdays isn't so commonly used, and might not be included in dictionaries. In that case, to find the meaning, the best way is probably to search for an example of somebody using it in real speech or writing - you can probably have a good guess at the meaning in the context of the whole speech or writing. Otherwise, you might need to check a source that specifically explains Shakespearean texts.
I hope that helps.
The LearnEnglish Team