# Conditionals 2

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

Look at these examples to see how third and mixed conditionals are used.

We would have walked to the top of the mountain if the weather hadn't been so bad.
If we'd moved to Scotland when I was a child, I would have a Scottish accent now.
If she was really my friend, she wouldn't have lied to me.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 1

## Grammar explanation

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

### Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If I hadn't been ill) and the main clause tells you the result (I would have gone to the party). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If I hadn't been ill, I would have gone to the party.
I would have gone to the party if I hadn't been ill.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

### Third conditional

The third conditional is used to imagine a different past. We imagine a change in a past situation and the different result of that change.

If I had understood the instructions properly, I would have passed the exam.
We wouldn't have got lost if my phone hadn't run out of battery.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually: If + past perfect >> would have + past participle.

### Mixed conditionals

We can use mixed conditionals when we imagine a past change with a result in the present or a present change with a result in the past.

#### 1. Past/Present

Here's a sentence imagining how a change in a past situation would have a result in the present.

If I hadn't got the job in Tokyo, I wouldn't be with my current partner.

So the structure is: If + past perfect >> would + infinitive.

#### 2. Present/Past

Here's a sentence imagining how a different situation in the present would mean that the past was different as well.

It's really important. If it wasn't, I wouldn't have called you on your holiday.

And the structure is: If + past simple >> would have + past participle.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 2

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### Language level

Submitted by IsaCam on Sat, 25/06/2022 - 21:36

Thank you so much for the explanation. I have a question related to the conditionals. I read many examples such as: If I wasn't in the middle of a meeting, I'd have called you. I don't understand when I should use "Were" for all. (If I weren't in a meeting... or If she were you).

Hello IsaCam,

This is actually quite an unusual example, but not for the reason you ask!

First, let me answer your question. You can use either was or were here. Both are correct in modern English, though some people feel that were is stylistically preferable.

The sentence is interesting because of the verb choice in the if-clause. Take a look at these two options:

1. If I hadn't been in the middle of a meeting, I'd have called you.
2. If I wasn't in the middle of a meeting, I'd have called you.

In both sentences, the result clause (I would have called you) describes a past action which did not happen. However, in the first sentence (with hadn't been) the condition/situation is also past: the meeting is over at the time of speaking. In the second sentence (with wasn't) the meeting is in present time, so it is still continuing at the time of speaking. In other words, you would use this sentence if the meeting is still ongoing and the other person arrives during it, at which point you explain why you didn't call. It's a very unusual example where the condition is still current though the result is in the past.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello again IsaCam,

This use of was/were is in if-clauses to talk about hypothetical present or future situations:

If I was/were a rich man, I'd... [I'm not a rich man]

If she was/were at the meeting, she'd... [she isn't or won't be at the meeting]

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by pereza on Wed, 08/06/2022 - 11:04

Hello BC,

This is bugging me. Is this sentence correct?

“If my mother weren't working, she would be driving to Paris with me.”

To my mind, both actions are progressive since I take it as “happening at the moment”, even though the words “now” or “right now” are left out.
All the examples I have found so far ask for a “would + infinitive” (“she would drive to Paris with me”), so I’m guessing that I’m mistaken.

Hello pereza,

The sentence is fine. In the first clause, the continuous aspect is presumably used because the speaker is talking about an activity in progress rather than a permanent state. You could add a time reference to make it clearer: If my mother weren't working today/this morning/all day...

In the second clause, the continuous form is used because the speaker is presumably in the middle of the journey, as you say. The simple form (she would drive) would be more likely to describe a choice in the future rather than an alternative present.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by parisaach on Wed, 08/06/2022 - 05:15

hello and thank you for your good lessons.
I am really confused with 2nd ,3rd and mixed conditional sentences. i think they can replaced in man cases.

Hello parisaach,

We're happy to provide help but this is a very general question. Can you be more specific and tell us which aspects of the form confuse you. It might help if you can provide an example sentence to illustrate your question.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by nouhaila on Sun, 29/05/2022 - 01:34

Hello Learnenglish team ,
Could you correct these sentences for me ?
~change the following statements into conditional sentences. ~
-last month brian was in the hospital for an operation. Liz didn't know this, so she didn't go to see him.
*If Liz had known that Brian was in the hospital last month for an operation, she would have gone to see him.
- they are tired now because they were awake all night.
*If they hadn’t been awake all night, they wouldn’t be tired now.
- Ahmed wasn’t informed about his English test before. So he wasn’t prepared for it.
*If ahmed had been informed about his English test he would have been prepared for it.
- Meriem wants to call zineb but she doesn't have her phone number.
*If Meriem had Zineb’s phone number she would call her.
- my house is guarded by two Alsatian dogs that's the only reason it isn't broken into every night.
*If my house was not guarded by 2 Alsatian dogs, it would have broken into every night.

Hello nouhaila,

Those look fine to me except for the last one. I'd say 'it would be broken into every night' since the original sentence seems to be speaking about the present and future, not the past.

I hope this wasn't your homework or a test!

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Saifalchalabi on Wed, 23/03/2022 - 04:24

Is ok if I say, I would not have thought, I would go this far. can we use I would have without if?

Hello Saifalchalabi,

Yes, you certainly can use would in that way. Some people like to think of there being an implied if-clause (e.g. II would go this far [if it were my decision]) but I don't think it's necessary or helpful in all contexts.

Would is also common in some other hypothetical or non-factual contexts (e.g. I wish you wouldn't do that!) and in some polite formulations (e.g. Would you like a drink?).

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by HieuNT on Thu, 24/02/2022 - 11:14

Hello The LearnEnglish Team,

I saw an example of the mixed conditional clauses in an article:

"His 426th and last ever goal came in his first El Classico, classic Kun always stepping up in the biggest games, if we knew it'd be his last we'd have celebrated it more".

The article was talking about Sergio Aguero's retirement from football because of his heart condition, to give you some context.

The question is, why did they use a mixed sentences (if - type 2, main - type 3) here?

> If we knew it'd be (would be) his last (match), we'd have celebrated it more.

while I think it should be "If we had known it'd be his last,....". I suppose they'd known about the fact by the time they made the statement, and of course by now.

Some more examples I've found from the news:
> I would not have let him go if I knew it would be so dangerous.
> If I knew it would be two hours in line, I would have stayed home.

Are these example ungrammatical and uncommon in English and they are only used in conversation (informal contexts)?

Hi HieuNT,

Yes, these examples are ungrammatical in standard English. They are, however, fairly common to see and hear, especially in contexts where precise speaking and writing is not required (e.g. informal conversations). Despite the mixed structures, the speaker's meaning is still pretty clear to understand.

Jonathan

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Kiefer Hua on Tue, 08/02/2022 - 10:38

I'm a little bit confused about the Third conditionals and Mixed conditional past/present. What is the difference between these two sentences?
1. If I hadn't studied that lesson, I wouldn't have been able to pass the test.
2. If I hadn't studied that lesson, I wouldn't be able to pass the test.
Is it that the first sentence emphasizes that I already passed the test and the second one emphasizes that I just received the test result and I utter this sentence?
Thank you!

Hi Kiefer Hua,

You're right about sentence 1 - it seems that the test has already taken place. About sentence 2, it seems that the test has not yet taken place.

In the situation that you mention (I just received the test result moments ago), I would use sentence 1 for that, since the event of passing the test has already happened.

I hope that helps.

Jonathan

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by emidepegaso on Mon, 13/12/2021 - 21:21

Submitted by 0933810273 on Tue, 02/11/2021 - 02:08

Hello everyone!
I wanted to check my level of understanding about structure "Conditionals"
Actually, This structure was too difficult for me to completely understood.
Especially that it was Mixed Conditonals
Oke, now I would write some setences with Structure "If".
1)If I hadn't studied about structer of conditionals,i wouldn't have known how to use it.
2)If i hadn't studied about structure of conditionals, i would know how to use it now
Finally,I hope that you could check my sentences of conditionals,Thanks a lots.
I wish you met a lot of good things in your life.

Hi 0933810273,

It's good to see your practice. :)

Sentences 1 and 2 use the third conditional, which shows an unreal past (i.e., a past situation that did NOT actually happen - we are just imagining it).

Sentence 1 is grammatically correct. It means that you did study the structure, and you do know how to use it.

Sentence 2 is grammatically correct too, but the meaning is a bit confusing. It means that you did study the structure, but you do NOT know how to use it now. This can be the case if, for example, the studying made you feel more confused. Is that what you meant?

In sentence 3, 'if I were you' is normally used to give advice to someone. It's part of a second conditional (unreal present or future). It should be --> If I were you, I would study ...

I hope that helps :)

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Firstly,I wanted to say "Thank You" beacasue you gave for me a lot of useful advices.And then, i wanted to talk to you about the second sentence, i thinked that you understood my mean exactly :)). By writting this sentence which conflicted with my idea. Had you not given for me these advices, i wouldn't have know about my mistake in gramma. Finally,I sincerly thank you again. I hope that you will have many good and lucky things in the life.Bye for now T

Hi 0933810273,

I'm glad! Thanks to you for coming to our site and posting your interesting question. :)

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by samchua on Fri, 29/10/2021 - 08:32

Hello,

Please can I check if this is correct?

If he recorded it, he would have told me. (He didn't record it so he didn't tell me)

Thanks!

Hello samchua,

If I understand you correctly, a full third conditional expresses your idea: 'If he had recorded it, he would have told me'.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Tony1980 on Thu, 21/10/2021 - 13:59

Hi Jonathan

Thanks for your help highly appreciated by me

1)If I didn’t drink too much I’d feel ok
2) if I don’t drink too much I’ll feel ok
Both of the sentences express a general truth so what’s the difference???

A conditional sentence by rule expresses an unreal or real situation
Can you please show me a sentence expressing a real situation.

Best regards
Andi

Hi Andi,

The difference is in how likely these situations are. In 1, the speaker thinks this is unlikely to happen, or even impossible. He/She probably will continue to drink too much. In 2, it is possible or even likely to happen. He/She has a reasonable chance of not drinking too much.

Here are some conditional sentences showing real situations.
-- If water is heated to 100 degrees, it boils.
-- If you get 10 marks, you pass the test.

You can find more examples and explanation about these structures on our Conditionals 1 page. I hope it helps! https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/intermediate-to-upper-i…

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan

So you’re saying that based in your sentences only a zero conditional expresses a real situation and all other conditionals are unreal??

It / there seems to be a lack of communication.

Which one is correct it or there and can you explain why please.

Best regards
Andi

Hi Andi,

A zero conditional expresses a general truth (real situation). A first conditional expresses a realistic or probable future situation. This is also a real situation - a real future. (Here, 'real' means that the situation has a reasonable chance of occurring in the future, in the speaker's opinion. 'Real' doesn't mean that the situation has already occurred, or is occurring.) If I say, for example, "When I finish work, I'll call you", I'm saying that I will do this with a high degree of certainty (i.e., a real future).

A second conditional expresses an unreal present or future situation, and a third condition expresses an unreal past situation. Here, 'unreal' means these situations are improbable or impossible.

In answer to your second question, both are grammatically possible. 'It' is a reference word, so it needs to refer to another thing mentioned in the conversation (e.g., a problem that the speaker described). 'There' is also possible. 'There seems to be' is a common phrase to introduce the existence or presence of something. We need to know the context in which this sentence is said to know whether 'there' or 'it' is more suitable.

I hope that helps :)

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan
Thanks a lot for your response
If it wasn’t raining we could go and play tennis.
This is a situation in the present, correct me if I’m wrong, and why “ if it didn’t rain “ isn’t possible here.

If they didn’t want to be successful, people wouldn’t buy these books.
This is a second conditional talking about unreal situations in the present or future.
But how can this be a situation occurring in the present or future when in the if clause we have past tense and in the main clause, future in the past??

Best regards
Andi

Hi Andi,

In the first sentence, it is (presumably) raining at the moment the speaker says this sentence, and we understand rain as something temporary (i.e., not something that will last forever, or something that is always true). So, we need the continuous form ("If it wasn't raining") to show that. If we say "If it didn't rain", that would refer to a permanent state of not raining, i.e., we imagine what would happen if there was no rain at any time, and it does not say anything about whether it is raining at the moment of speaking or not.

In the second sentence, it's important to understand that past verb forms do not always mean past time. They can also refer to unreal present/future situations, as in this example.

The main clause doesn't show future in the past. For comparison, here is an example of future in the past: "The company thought that people wouldn't buy these books." As you can see, the words are similar to your example, and the time of "people wouldn't buy these books" is after the time of "The company thought", but the timeframe of the whole sentence is the past (unlike your sentence, which has a present/future timeframe).

I hope that helps.

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan
Thank you so much for the long response very helpful and I really appreciate it
Best regards
Andi

Submitted by GoldenTeacher1 on Sun, 17/10/2021 - 21:51

Are there any other instances where we use commas in conditional sentences other than when the sentence begins with a dependent clause?

Hello GoldenTeacher1,

As you say, in general, we use a comma when a conditional begins with the dependent clause. I'm afraid I can't definitely say that there are no other circumstances when a comma needs to be used -- there are just too many possible situations. But if you have a specific situation in mind, please feel free to explain it to us and ask us about it.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Natasa Tanasa on Fri, 27/08/2021 - 11:06

Hello everyone, Could you help me with understanding when to use in the Second Conditional: "If I were..." and "If I was..."? Thank you a lot!

Hi Natasa Tanasa,

The short answer is that both If I were and If I was are acceptable, and the meaning is the same. But, there is a preference for were, especially in writing.

There's a short explanation on this page (see the Second conditional section) and on this Grammar reference page, with some examples and exercises. I hope they help!

Jonathan

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan

I’m sorry for commenting in another person’s reply but there is no comment option in here for me to post my comment.

1)If Paul hadn’t been an extreme athlete, Jordan might not have climbed Everest.

2)if Paul weren’t an extreme athlete, Jordan might not have climbed Everest.

What’s the difference between if clauses of 1) and 2) ?? Does 1) mean that Paul is still an extreme athlete and in 2) he is not??
Best regards
Andi

Hi Tony,

No worries. The box to write a new comment is now at the bottom of the page, so have a look there.

Clause 1 (hadn't been - past perfect) shows an unreal past. The sentence means Paul was an extreme athlete at the time when Jordan climbed Everest. (The meaning is limited to that past time. It does not say anything about whether Paul is still an extreme athlete today.)

In clause 2, (weren't - past simple) shows an unreal present. It means that Paul is an extreme athlete. This is understood as a fact that is true and unchanging regardless of time (i.e., it is true in the present, and extends to the past and future as well). In this sentence, it's certain that Paul is still an extreme athlete now.

I hope that helps :)

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Ahmed Imam on Mon, 29/03/2021 - 06:29

Hello. I'm really confused about how to use "unless" in 2nd and 3rd conditionals. Is the following sentence correct? Why? Please explain in simple language. - Unless he had helped me, I wouldn't have been able to finish the work. Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam,

We don't use unless with statements that we know to be true. For example:

She wouldn't have gone to the party unless Paul asked her.

[this is speculation; the speaker does not know for certain if Paul asked her]

I wouldn't have gone to the party if Paul hadn't asked me. [not unless]

[this is certain: the speaker knows Paul asked them and so unless cannot be used]

In your example, the speaker knows that help was given and so unless cannot be used. The sentence needs to use 'if...not': If he hadn't helped me...

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Ahmed Imam on Thu, 25/03/2021 - 03:31

Hello. Is it OK to use "in case" in second conditionals? For example, Is the following sentence correct? - I got some books with me when I went travelling in case I got board. Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam,

It's fine to use in case with past forms. Your sentence is not a so-called second conditional, however, but rather a sentence about a real past event. In your example in case has the meaning 'because it was possible that':

I took some books in case I got bored.

[took = a real past event; got bored = a possible past situation]

You can use in case with future hypothetical meaning:

If I went, I would take some books in case I got bored.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by gsgxxiii on Mon, 22/03/2021 - 12:45

For conditional 3, can I not use 'if'? For example: Had I understood the instructions properly, I would have passed the exam.

Submitted by Graziadb1966 on Sun, 21/03/2021 - 08:34

‘If I could change the way I live my life today, I wouldn’t change a single thing’ song by Lisa Stanfiled... is this a second conditional given that the If clause uses a modal verb? Shouldn’t it be if I changed ..., I wouldn’t ...? Maybe just because it a song? What about ‘If I could, I surely would’ (also a song by Simon & Garfunkel’s)?

It's perfectly fine to use certain modal verbs in the if-clause of conditional sentences. In your example 'could change' has the meaning 'were able to change' and so it expresses a different meaning to just 'changed'.

Here are a few other examples of modal verbs used in if-clauses:

• If + should - expressing a sense of something happening to the subject which he or she cannot control: If I should die, think only this of me: That there's some corner of a foreign field That is for ever England. [The Soldier, Ruperb Brooke].
• If + will - expressing a sense of agreement/being willing to do something: If he will speak to us, I think we can persuade him.
• If + can - expressing a sense of possibility: If he can get the documents to me by tonight, I will sign them.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Iman ELBorolos on Thu, 04/03/2021 - 10:46

Hello, I am confused between conditionals. Did you mean that :if something started in the past and its effect extend to the present we will use if+past perfect ----would+infinitive but if something started and end in the past and i wish to change it in the past we will use if +past simple--------would have=past participle please help and advise.

Submitted by Peter M. on Sat, 06/03/2021 - 07:49

In reply to by Iman ELBorolos

Hello Iman ELBorolos,

The difference is not really about something continuing or not - I think this is a confusing way to try to describe it. Rather, it's about whether the result is in the past or the present. For example:

1. If I had worked hard, I would have passed my exams.

I didn't work hard (unreal past condition); I didn't pass my exams (unreal past result)

2. If I had passed my exams, I would have a good job now.

I didn't pass my exams (unreal past condition); I don't have a good job (unreal present result)

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by gsgxxiii on Tue, 23/02/2021 - 17:14