# Conditionals 2

Do you know how to use third conditionals and mixed conditionals? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how third and mixed conditionals are used.

We would have walked to the top of the mountain if the weather hadn't been so bad.
If we'd moved to Scotland when I was a child, I would have a Scottish accent now.
If she was really my friend, she wouldn't have lied to me.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 1

## Grammar explanation

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

### Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If I hadn't been ill) and the main clause tells you the result (I would have gone to the party). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If I hadn't been ill, I would have gone to the party.
I would have gone to the party if I hadn't been ill.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

### Third conditional

The third conditional is used to imagine a different past. We imagine a change in a past situation and the different result of that change.

If I had understood the instructions properly, I would have passed the exam.
We wouldn't have got lost if my phone hadn't run out of battery.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually: If + past perfect >> would have + past participle.

### Mixed conditionals

We can use mixed conditionals when we imagine a past change with a result in the present or a present change with a result in the past.

#### 1. Past/Present

Here's a sentence imagining how a change in a past situation would have a result in the present.

If I hadn't got the job in Tokyo, I wouldn't be with my current partner.

So the structure is: If + past perfect >> would + infinitive.

#### 2. Present/Past

Here's a sentence imagining how a different situation in the present would mean that the past was different as well.

It's really important. If it wasn't, I wouldn't have called you on your holiday.

And the structure is: If + past simple >> would have + past participle.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 2

### Language level

Submitted by DDW on Mon, 22/08/2022 - 17:02

Dear Team,
what is the difference between
1.If my granny were alive, she would love to see me graduate.
2.If my granny were alive, she would have loved to see me graduate.
and Is it correct as if I say
If I hadn't got up early, I wouldn't miss my meeting? (I want to emphasis the present result)

Hello DDW,

Both sentences are about unreal (imaginary) situations as the granny is not alive. In sentence 1 the result clause (she would love...) refers to a future event: the speaker has not graduated yet. In sentence 2 the result clause (she would have loved...) refers to a past event: the graduation has already happened.

Your other example does not make sense but not because of the grammar. Getting up early should help you to get to the meeting, and not getting up early might make you miss the meeting. Thus the logical sentences would be as follows:

If I hadn't got up early (this morning), I would miss my meeting (this afternoon).

If I had got up early (this morning), I wouldn't miss my meeting (this afternoon).

Both sentences describe an imagined future result of an imagined (alternative) past situation.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Blizzard93 on Sun, 07/08/2022 - 14:08

Greetings, i have a question, does it grammarly correct;
"Even if that had been true, would that change anthing?"
Thanks a lot

Hello Blizzard93,

Yes, that is the first kind of a mixed conditional mentioned in the explanation above. It speaks about an unreal change in the past ('even if that had been true') that could potentially have an effect in the present ('would that change anything?').

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Ahmaddamerji on Wed, 03/08/2022 - 14:25

I found this sentence in a general English course books, and I wonder how it is possible to use the second conditional in the main clause and present simple in the result clause

If there was an accident at the power plant, I dread to think of the consequences.

Good question! According to the Cambridge Dictionary, the meaning of "dread" is "to feel extremely worried or frightened about something that is going to happen or that might happen", and the meaning of "dread to think" is "to say that you do not want to think about something because it is too worrying". Perhaps from these meanings, it is clear enough that the result clause refers to imagined or hypothetical consequences.

Using "would" is also fine, and doesn't change the meaning, e.g. "I would dread to think of the consequences" or "I dread to think what the consequences would be."

I hope that helps.

Jonathan

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by IsaCam on Sat, 25/06/2022 - 21:36

Thank you so much for the explanation. I have a question related to the conditionals. I read many examples such as: If I wasn't in the middle of a meeting, I'd have called you. I don't understand when I should use "Were" for all. (If I weren't in a meeting... or If she were you).

Hello IsaCam,

This is actually quite an unusual example, but not for the reason you ask!

First, let me answer your question. You can use either was or were here. Both are correct in modern English, though some people feel that were is stylistically preferable.

The sentence is interesting because of the verb choice in the if-clause. Take a look at these two options:

1. If I hadn't been in the middle of a meeting, I'd have called you.
2. If I wasn't in the middle of a meeting, I'd have called you.

In both sentences, the result clause (I would have called you) describes a past action which did not happen. However, in the first sentence (with hadn't been) the condition/situation is also past: the meeting is over at the time of speaking. In the second sentence (with wasn't) the meeting is in present time, so it is still continuing at the time of speaking. In other words, you would use this sentence if the meeting is still ongoing and the other person arrives during it, at which point you explain why you didn't call. It's a very unusual example where the condition is still current though the result is in the past.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello again IsaCam,

This use of was/were is in if-clauses to talk about hypothetical present or future situations:

If I was/were a rich man, I'd... [I'm not a rich man]

If she was/were at the meeting, she'd... [she isn't or won't be at the meeting]

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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