# Conditionals 2

Do you know how to use third conditionals and mixed conditionals? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how third and mixed conditionals are used.

We would have walked to the top of the mountain if the weather hadn't been so bad.
If we'd moved to Scotland when I was a child, I would have a Scottish accent now.
If she was really my friend, she wouldn't have lied to me.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 1

## Grammar explanation

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

### Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If I hadn't been ill) and the main clause tells you the result (I would have gone to the party). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If I hadn't been ill, I would have gone to the party.
I would have gone to the party if I hadn't been ill.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

### Third conditional

The third conditional is used to imagine a different past. We imagine a change in a past situation and the different result of that change.

If I had understood the instructions properly, I would have passed the exam.
We wouldn't have got lost if my phone hadn't run out of battery.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually: If + past perfect >> would have + past participle.

### Mixed conditionals

We can use mixed conditionals when we imagine a past change with a result in the present or a present change with a result in the past.

#### 1. Past/Present

Here's a sentence imagining how a change in a past situation would have a result in the present.

If I hadn't got the job in Tokyo, I wouldn't be with my current partner.

So the structure is: If + past perfect >> would + infinitive.

#### 2. Present/Past

Here's a sentence imagining how a different situation in the present would mean that the past was different as well.

It's really important. If it wasn't, I wouldn't have called you on your holiday.

And the structure is: If + past simple >> would have + past participle.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 2

### Language level

Hello samchua,

If I understand you correctly, a full third conditional expresses your idea: 'If he had recorded it, he would have told me'.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Tony1980 on Thu, 21/10/2021 - 13:59

Hi Jonathan

Thanks for your help highly appreciated by me

1)If I didn’t drink too much I’d feel ok
2) if I don’t drink too much I’ll feel ok
Both of the sentences express a general truth so what’s the difference???

A conditional sentence by rule expresses an unreal or real situation
Can you please show me a sentence expressing a real situation.

Best regards
Andi

Hi Andi,

The difference is in how likely these situations are. In 1, the speaker thinks this is unlikely to happen, or even impossible. He/She probably will continue to drink too much. In 2, it is possible or even likely to happen. He/She has a reasonable chance of not drinking too much.

Here are some conditional sentences showing real situations.
-- If water is heated to 100 degrees, it boils.
-- If you get 10 marks, you pass the test.

You can find more examples and explanation about these structures on our Conditionals 1 page. I hope it helps! https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/grammar/intermediate-to-upper-i…

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan

So you’re saying that based in your sentences only a zero conditional expresses a real situation and all other conditionals are unreal??

It / there seems to be a lack of communication.

Which one is correct it or there and can you explain why please.

Best regards
Andi

Hi Andi,

A zero conditional expresses a general truth (real situation). A first conditional expresses a realistic or probable future situation. This is also a real situation - a real future. (Here, 'real' means that the situation has a reasonable chance of occurring in the future, in the speaker's opinion. 'Real' doesn't mean that the situation has already occurred, or is occurring.) If I say, for example, "When I finish work, I'll call you", I'm saying that I will do this with a high degree of certainty (i.e., a real future).

A second conditional expresses an unreal present or future situation, and a third condition expresses an unreal past situation. Here, 'unreal' means these situations are improbable or impossible.

In answer to your second question, both are grammatically possible. 'It' is a reference word, so it needs to refer to another thing mentioned in the conversation (e.g., a problem that the speaker described). 'There' is also possible. 'There seems to be' is a common phrase to introduce the existence or presence of something. We need to know the context in which this sentence is said to know whether 'there' or 'it' is more suitable.

I hope that helps :)

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan
Thanks a lot for your response
If it wasn’t raining we could go and play tennis.
This is a situation in the present, correct me if I’m wrong, and why “ if it didn’t rain “ isn’t possible here.

If they didn’t want to be successful, people wouldn’t buy these books.
This is a second conditional talking about unreal situations in the present or future.
But how can this be a situation occurring in the present or future when in the if clause we have past tense and in the main clause, future in the past??

Best regards
Andi

Hi Andi,

In the first sentence, it is (presumably) raining at the moment the speaker says this sentence, and we understand rain as something temporary (i.e., not something that will last forever, or something that is always true). So, we need the continuous form ("If it wasn't raining") to show that. If we say "If it didn't rain", that would refer to a permanent state of not raining, i.e., we imagine what would happen if there was no rain at any time, and it does not say anything about whether it is raining at the moment of speaking or not.

In the second sentence, it's important to understand that past verb forms do not always mean past time. They can also refer to unreal present/future situations, as in this example.

The main clause doesn't show future in the past. For comparison, here is an example of future in the past: "The company thought that people wouldn't buy these books." As you can see, the words are similar to your example, and the time of "people wouldn't buy these books" is after the time of "The company thought", but the timeframe of the whole sentence is the past (unlike your sentence, which has a present/future timeframe).

I hope that helps.

Jonathan
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Jonathan
Thank you so much for the long response very helpful and I really appreciate it
Best regards
Andi

Submitted by GoldenTeacher1 on Sun, 17/10/2021 - 21:51