Conditionals: zero, first and second

Conditionals: zero, first and second

Do you know how to use the zero, first and second conditionals? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how zero, first and second conditionals are used.

If you freeze water, it becomes solid.
If it rains tomorrow, I'll take the car.
If I lived closer to the cinema, I would go more often.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If you study hard) and the main clause tells you the result (you will pass your exams). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If you study hard, you will pass your exams.
You will pass your exams if you study hard.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Zero conditional

We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are generally true, especially for laws and rules.

If I drink too much coffee, I can't sleep at night.
Ice melts if you heat it.
When the sun goes down, it gets dark.

The structure is: if/when + present simple >> present simple.

First conditional

We use the first conditional when we talk about future situations we believe are real or possible.

If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.
Arsenal will be top of the league if they win.
When I finish work, I'll call you.

In first conditional sentences, the structure is usually: if/when + present simple >> will + infinitive. 

It is also common to use this structure with unless, as long as, as soon as or in case instead of if.

I'll leave as soon as the babysitter arrives.
I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.
I'll give you a key in case I'm not at home.
You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight.

Second conditional

The second conditional is used to imagine present or future situations that are impossible or unlikely in reality.

If we had a garden, we could have a cat.
If I won a lot of money, I'd buy a big house in the country.
I wouldn't worry if I were you.

The structure is usually: if + past simple >> + would + infinitive. 

When if is followed by the verb be, it is grammatically correct to say if I were, if he were, if she were and if it were. However, it is also common to hear these structures with was, especially in the he/she form.

If I were you, I wouldn't mention it.
If she was prime minister, she would invest more money in schools.
He would travel more if he was younger.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 2

Language level

Average: 4.2 (116 votes)
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Hello bloody_kary,

Both forms are possible here in modern English. In the past, 'were' (a subjunctive form) was preferred, but this is not the case in modern English and you can use either form.

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello bloody_kary,

Yes, both are correct in modern English.

I think the sentence could be improved in another way, however. We generally avoid using 'much' in affirmative sentences. Another quantifier such as 'a lot of', 'lots', 'plenty of', 'a good deal of' etc would be a better (more natural) choice here.

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by GiulianaAndy on Thu, 15/07/2021 - 00:28

Hello, awesome lesson. However I have a question, here you go: In the grammar test 1 is it possible to write down a comma before the if clause I got confused because of these sentences: 1) I would study English Every Day if I had time (There's no comma before the if clause) 2) We'll be late for the film, if we don't hurry up (There's a comma before the if clause) And also, I would like to know this: Is there always a comma before the clause in the sentence witch is not the "if" one?

Hello GiulianaAndy,

Thanks for your feedback!

The general rules are to 1) put a comma after the 'if' clause when the 'if' clause comes first, and 2) not put a comma before the 'if' clause when the 'if' clause comes second. These two sentences, for example, show the normal punctuation:

If it rains tomorrow, I'll take the car.
I'll take the car if it rains tomorrow.

There can be exceptions to this rule and you did a good job noticing the comma in question 3 in the first task. Sometimes we use a comma here to indicate a slight pause in the sentence, but most of the time it's best not to write it.

Since it's more common for the comma not to be there, I've removed it from the sentence 3 in Task 1. I'm sorry if it caused you any confusion!

Thanks for again for your feedback!

Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team


Submitted by Natasa Tanasa on Tue, 22/06/2021 - 12:58

Hello everyone, I would like to know if the next sentence is the correct one: "How will you get there if your flight is cancelled?" Thank you so much in advance!

Hi Natasa Tanasa,

Yes! It's correct :)


The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by beckysyto on Sun, 20/06/2021 - 09:52

Hi Which of the following sentences are correct? (1) I could go into a chocolate factory and eat a lot of chocolate if no one WAS able to see me. (2) I could go into a chocolate factory and eat a lot of chocolate if no one WERE able to see me. If subjunctive verbs are used, should indefinite pronouns go with "was" or "were"? Why? Thanks a lot.
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Submitted by Kirk Moore on Sun, 20/06/2021 - 14:57

In reply to by beckysyto


Hello beckysyto,

Both of the sentences are correct. We use singular verb forms with 'no one', but 'were' is still correct here for a different reason.

In older English, the only correct verb form here was a past subjunctive, and the past subjunctive of 'be' is 'were'. We still use this old form in a few structures (such as the second conditional), and that is why 'were' is also considered correct here.

As I'm sure you've noticed, 'was' is also accepted as correct -- it acts as a kind of modern subjunctive in a way.

Does that make sense?

All the best,


The LearnEnglish Team