Conditionals: zero, first and second

Do you know how to use the zero, first and second conditionals? Test what you know with interactive exercises and read the explanation to help you.

Look at these examples to see how zero, first and second conditionals are used.

If you freeze water, it becomes solid.
If it rains tomorrow, I'll take the car.
If I lived closer to the cinema, I would go more often.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 1

Grammar explanation

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If you study hard) and the main clause tells you the result (you will pass your exams). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If you study hard, you will pass your exams.
You will pass your exams if you study hard.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Zero conditional

We use the zero conditional to talk about things that are generally true, especially for laws and rules.

If I drink too much coffee, I can't sleep at night.
Ice melts if you heat it.
When the sun goes down, it gets dark.

The structure is: if/when + present simple >> present simple.

First conditional

We use the first conditional when we talk about future situations we believe are real or possible.

If it doesn't rain tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.
Arsenal will be top of the league if they win.
When I finish work, I'll call you.

In first conditional sentences, the structure is usually: if/when + present simple >> will + infinitive.

It is also common to use this structure with unless, as long as, as soon as or in case instead of if.

I'll leave as soon as the babysitter arrives.
I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.
I'll give you a key in case I'm not at home.
You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight.

Second conditional

The second conditional is used to imagine present or future situations that are impossible or unlikely in reality.

If we had a garden, we could have a cat.
If I won a lot of money, I'd buy a big house in the country.
I wouldn't worry if I were you.

The structure is usually: if + past simple >> + would + infinitive.

When if is followed by the verb be, it is grammatically correct to say if I were, if he were, if she were and if it were. However, it is also common to hear these structures with was, especially in the he/she form.

If I were you, I wouldn't mention it.
If she was prime minister, she would invest more money in schools.
He would travel more if he was younger.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 1: Grammar test 2

Language level

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Submitted by Gendeng on Thu, 26/10/2023 - 03:16

What is the difference?
It will be expensive to stay in a hotel.
It would be expensive to stay in a hotel.

Hello Gendeng,

The difference here is whether the speaker is talking about a real situation (the first sentence) or a more hypothetical one (the second).

You might use the first if the plan has already been made and you are pointing out a fact that will not change. The second is more likely when the plan is still under discussion. However, these are nuances rather than fixed grammar rules and are context-dependent.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Gendeng on Thu, 26/10/2023 - 03:14

What is the differrence?
If you do it, that will be perfect.
If you did it, that would be perfect.

Hello Gendeng,

Peter answered a very similar question of yours just above, and the difference between these two patterns is explained on the page above. I also see a new comment of yours asking much the same thing.

We're happy to help you understand, but please wait to see our answers before writing the same or a very similar question. It would also be helpful if you told us what you understand the difference to be, or what you don't understand.

Best wishes,
Kirk
LearnEnglish team

Submitted by Risa warysha on Mon, 16/10/2023 - 10:40

Hallo teachers,
Jenny: I'd love to go back in history to see how people lived hundreds of years ago.
Jake: Me too. I (would/ could) choose, I'd probably travel to ancieny Rome.
Which one is the best word to complete the sentence, would/ could?
And what is the difference between would and could for the sentence?

Hi Risa warysha,

"Could" is the right word because the meaning is "If I had the ability to travel ...". Also, I guess "if" is missing from the sentence? If I could choose ...

I hope that helps.

Jonathan

LearnEnglish team

Submitted by mary.j on Thu, 12/10/2023 - 07:47

Hello
I have a problem with first conditionals grammar. Actually two of examples confused me:

_ I don't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job.
_ You can go to the party, as long as you're back by midnight.
Why don't you use "will" in the main clause? Is it rule to use simple present in both clause when we use "unless" or "as long as"?

Hello mary.j,

I'm sorry that was confusing. The inclusion of those parts under the first conditional was our attempt to keep the explanation simple, because these forms could fit in many places. The whole idea that there are four different conditionals is actually a fiction -- in reality, we just use the forms that make sense given what we want to communicate. The labels of 'first conditional', etc., are just names we use for the most common combinations of verb forms.

'unless' means something like 'if ... not': 'I don't want to stay in London if I don't get a well-paid job'.

It's also possible to say 'I won't want to stay in London unless I get a well-paid job', though I think the present form is more natural. This sentence expresses the conditions under which the speaker wants to stay in London; their desire is already present.

If we removed 'want' from the sentence, several forms would all mean pretty much the same thing: 'I won't stay in London unless ...', 'I'm not going to stay in London unless ...' and 'I'm not staying in London unless ...'

'as long as' and 'provided that' are two other expressions used to speak about conditions. You could also say 'You can go to the party if you're back by midnight' and it has the same fundamental meaning, but 'as long as' is a stronger statement about the conditions. If I said 'as long as' to my teenage son, he would understand that I would be quite upset if he came home later. If I said 'if', it's not as explicit that I definitely want him home by midnight.

I hope this helps.

All the best,
Kirk
LearnEnglish team

Thanks Kirk Moore

Thanks for your great explanation. I totally understand the second paragraph. About the first paragraph as I get, it doesn't have different meaning, but in conversation it's more common to use present in both clause, am I right?