Learn about the 'dummy' subjects it and there and do the exercises to practise using them.
English clauses always have a subject:
His father has just retired. > He was a teacher. (NOT
Was a teacher.)
I'm waiting for my wife. > She is late. (NOT
... except for the imperative:
Play it again, please.
If there is no other subject, we use there to talk about:
- where or when something is:
There's an interesting book on the shelf.
There'll be an eclipse of the moon tonight.
There is plenty of bread left.
There were twenty people at the meeting.
- something existing or happening:
There's a small problem.
There was a nasty fight.
We use it to talk about:
It's nearly one o'clock.
It's my birthday.
It's a lovely day.
It was getting cold.
We use it with the verb be and an –ing form or to-infinitive to express opinions:
It's great living here.
It's nice to meet you.
- Subjects of sentences
- it and there as dummy subjects 1
- it and there as dummy subjects 2