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Conditionals 2

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

Look at these examples to see how third and mixed conditionals are used.

We would have walked to the top of the mountain if the weather hadn't been so bad.
If we'd moved to Scotland when I was a child, I would have a Scottish accent now.
If she was really my friend, she wouldn't have lied to me.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If I hadn't been ill) and the main clause tells you the result (I would have gone to the party). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If I hadn't been ill, I would have gone to the party.
I would have gone to the party if I hadn't been ill.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Third conditional

The third conditional is used to imagine a different past. We imagine a change in a past situation and the different result of that change.

If I had understood the instructions properly, I would have passed the exam.
We wouldn't have got lost if my phone hadn't run out of battery.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually: If + past perfect >> would have + past participle.

Mixed conditionals

We can use mixed conditionals when we imagine a past change with a result in the present or a present change with a result in the past.

1. Past/Present 

Here's a sentence imagining how a change in a past situation would have a result in the present.

If I hadn't got the job in Tokyo, I wouldn't be with my current partner.

So the structure is: If + past perfect >> would + infinitive.

2. Present/Past

Here's a sentence imagining how a different situation in the present would mean that the past was different as well.

It's really important. If it wasn't, I wouldn't have called you on your holiday.

And the structure is: If + past simple >> would have + past participle.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 2

Language level

Intermediate: B1
Upper intermediate: B2


Hello, can you tell about difference between "should be" and "must be"
Are they the same or not, in what sentences we use should be and must be
thanks again for great cooperation

Hi, i am new here. Thanks for providing such a great learning platform.
Sir I have a little confusion and wish you to resolve it..
Above, in last sentence you have used past simple in if clause.
Could we use present simple instead of using past simple.

Thank you in advance

Hi Syed sami ul haq,

It is possible to use the present simple in the if-clause, but the meaning is then changed. We use [if + present... (then) will + verb] for likely or real events, and [if + past... (then) would + verb] for unlikely or unreal events.

You can find more information on these types of conditional sentences, sometimes called first and second conditional forms, on this page.

I hope that helps to clarify it for you.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Sir, could you please explain me if I use present simple in the sentence what meaning it will give and if pasr simple is used what will be the difference in meaning. If possible explain it using example. Because it is quite difficult for me to recognize what situation it is, I mean likely or unlikely.


Hi Syed,

In general, this is the difference between the first conditional (present simple after 'if') and the second conditional (past simple after 'if'), which are explained on our Conditionals 1 page. The key difference is subjective - if you regard something as possible or likely, then you should use the first conditional. On the other hand, if you regard it as unlikely or impossible, then use the second conditional. Please see the examples on the page I mention. If it's still unclear, please let us know on that page.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

Yesterday I posted my query but it didn't appear, so I'm posting it again now. Thank you for being patient.
I'm doing a correct mistake exercise on Relative clauses and Reduced relative clauses (-ing clauses and -ed clauses). Please tell me if we can always change a relative clause into a reduced relative clause. If not, why not?
In the sentence below, I have to correct a mistake. Can I rewrite it in both types of clauses? According to the key of the exercise, it's rewritten in relative clause.
"Like other women PIONEERED => WHO PIONEERED or PIONEERING (or both) in the field medicine, Sara Mayo found the beginning years difficult."
Thanks for your help.

P/S: sorry if my query is not clear enough. I'll try to explain again if needed.

Hello Fallvn,

Questions are always moderated here on LearnEnglish to remove spam and suchlike, so there is always a delay between posting and the post appearing; please be patient with this and the question will appear.

Our role here on LearnEnglish is to help our users to understand the information on the site, not to help with other exercises from other sites, tests or class- or homework. If we tried to do this then we would have no time for anything else, quite apart from the fact that we have no idea of where these exercises come from and of what quality they are. We certainly do not wish to get involved in explaining rules or examples which may be badly phrased, inaccurate or incomplete, for obvious reasons. For example, the sentence you posted contains a grammar error quite apart from the question of the relative clause (we would say 'the field of medicine'). In short, if you need help with exercises from elsewhere then you need to ask the authors of those exercises for help or explanation.

That said, I will tell you that 'pioneered' is wrong here, but both 'who pioneered' and 'pioneering' are grammatically possible.

You can find more information on participle clauses here, and more information on relative clauses here and here.

One last point regarding questions and posts: we'd appreciate it if you could try to post questions on relevant pages (so a question about reduced relative clauses would be posted on the page related to relative clauses rather than this one, which is about conditionals). This is so that other users who are studying a given topic can find the question and learn from it and its answer; if questions appear on random pages then they become much harder to find and much less useful to other users.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Peter,
Sorry for any convenience I caused and thank you for your explanation. I really appreciate it.
I was new here so I really didn't know where to post my query although I tried to look for an appropriate page and I wrongly thought it was OK to post my question here. Sorry about that. I'll be more careful next time.
As for the exercise I did, it's from an exercise book, so it's impossible for me to ask the authors for help. (The interaction between exercise book authors and learners is not popular in my country.) I've studied English by myself, so when I found your site I felt very lucky to have a chance to consult professionals. Thanks for that.
By the way, in 'the field medicine', I omitted "of" when typing the sentence. Sorry about it. I'll pay more attention to my typing next time.
Again, I'd like to thank you for understanding. Thanks for your help and your patience. Hope to get more help from you in the future.
Best wishes,

Hi, I'm new here and look forward to learn from you guys.

hi peter please let me now what is the different A- I will come and I shall come
also they shall come and they will come