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'in spite of', 'despite', 'although', 'even though' and 'though'

Do you know how to connect two contrasting ideas?

Look at these examples to see how although, even though, in spite of and despite are used.

Although we don't agree, I think she's a brilliant speaker.
Even though we don't agree, I think she's a brilliant speaker.
In spite of the law, people continue to use mobile phones while driving.
Despite the law, people continue to use mobile phones while driving.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

'in spite of', 'despite', 'although', 'even though' and 'though': Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Although, even though, in spite of and despite are all used to link two contrasting ideas or show that one fact makes the other fact surprising. They can all be used at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. 

Despite the rain, we enjoyed the festival.
We enjoyed the festival, despite the rain.

The main difference between although, even though, in spite of and despite is that they are used with different structures. 

in spite of / despite

After in spite of and despite, we use a noun, gerund (-ing form of a verb) or a pronoun.

They never made much money, in spite of their success.
In spite of the pain in his leg, he completed the marathon.
Despite having a headache, I had a great birthday.
The train was cancelled. In spite of that, we arrived on time.

Note that it is common to use in spite of and despite with the expression the fact that, followed by a subject and verb.

In spite of the fact that he worked very hard, he didn't pass the exam.
Despite the fact that he worked very hard, he didn't pass the exam.

although / even though

After although and even though, we use a subject and a verb. Even though is slightly stronger and more emphatic than although.

I enjoyed the course, although I would have liked more grammar practice.
Although we saw each other every day, we didn't really know each other.
Even though she spoke very quietly, he understood every word.
She didn't get the job, even though she had all the necessary qualifications.

though

Though can be used in the same way as although

Though I wasn't keen on the film, I thought the music was beautiful.

Though can also go at the end of the second phrase. This way of expressing contrasting ideas is most common in spoken English.

We waited ages for our food. The waiter was really nice, though.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

'in spite of', 'despite', 'although', 'even though' and 'though': Grammar test 2

Language level

Intermediate: B1

Comments

Hello sir! What does "Orwellian and Orwellian non-sense" means? Guide me about its usage too.

Hi Muhammad,

The word 'Orwellian' refers to the thought of English writer George Orwell. If you follow the link, you can read a short explanation in the Wikipedia to learn a more specific meaning for it. If you are very interested in the topic, this short video goes into the topic in more depth.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello, I am Muslim so we eat meal before dawn in the month of Ramadan which is a part of keeping fast. We call it "Sahri Meal" but I want to know what Brits call this meal. A friend of mine said that Brits use word "Pre-dawn Meal". I am very confuse. Kindly guide me.

Hi again Muhammad,

I'm afraid I don't know, but I imagine it varies according to the origin of Muslims -- as you can see in the Wikipedia article, there are different words for it. By the way, our sister site LearnEnglish Teens has a video about a young woman who observed Ramadan -- perhaps this could be of interest to you.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello, which one is correct: "He is observing seclusion" or "He is performing/sitting seclusion"?

Hi Muhammad,

I'm not sure what you mean here, but as far as I know, the word 'seclusion' isn't used with these verbs. People 'go into seclusion' or 'live in seclusion' -- do either of those make sense to you? Or perhaps the word 'retreat' (a time/place for quiet prayer) is what you mean?

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

hello,
do you know what's the different between "Although" or "Even though" .Based on the material "even though" is more stronger than "although . what's that means ??

Hello Winda Asyuni,

The meanings of although and even though are the same: both introduce a contrasting fact which makes an action or event less likely or surprising. For example:

Although it was raining, I went for a walk.

Even though it was raining, I went for a walk.

People usally choose to stay inside when the weather is bad, so the fact that it was raining makes my choice more surprising.

The difference between them is strength, that is how surprising the action was in this situation. Of course, this is a very subjective question. The speaker may consider a particular context to be a particularly powerful difficulty:

I went for a walk even though there was a thunderstorm!

On the other hand the speaker might choose even though simply for rhetorical effect because they want to emphasise just how difficult the situation was, or just how determined they were in their action. In the end it is a choice for the speaker, just as many choices in language are.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you, Peter for the explanation

Kindly tell me differences of the following:
1) Passion and Comittment
2) Involved and Indulged
3) Me and You/You and I

Basically I am translating an Islamic lecture and I need to use modest words that is why I am asking difference because as of my opinion "Involved" is modest word if we use it instead of "Indulged".

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