On the night of 31 December and the morning of 1 January, people in many countries all over the world will celebrate the beginning of a new year. How will they celebrate and how did this tradition begin?

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'For last year's words belong to last year's language
And next year's words await another voice.
And to make an end is to make a beginning.' – TS Eliot

New year, old celebrations

There have been celebrations to mark the beginning of a new year for thousands of years. Sometimes these were simply an opportunity for people to eat, drink and have fun, but in some places the festivities were connected to the land or astronomical events. For example, in Egypt the beginning of the year coincided with when the River Nile flooded, and this normally happened when the star Sirius rose. The Persians and Phoenicians started their new year at the spring equinox (this is around 20 March when the Sun shines more or less directly on the equator and the length of the night and the day are almost the same).

The oldest celebration

The city of Babylon in ancient Mesopotamia was where the first New Year's celebrations were recorded about 4,000 years ago. The Babylonians held their celebrations on the first new moon after the spring equinox and called this festival Akitu (which comes from the word the Sumerians used for barley). Barley was cut in Mesopotamia in the spring, and during Akitu there was a different ritual on each of the 11 days that the celebration lasted. Statues of the gods were carried through the streets of the city, and in this way the Babylonians believed that their world had been cleaned to prepare for the new year and a new spring.

Modern celebrations

In many cities all over the world, spectacular fireworks displays take place as soon as the clock passes midnight on 31 December. In recent years, Sydney in Australia has been the host to one of the first of these celebrations as New Year arrives there before most other major international cities. The display takes place in Sydney Harbour, with the Opera House and Harbour Bridge making it a stunning setting. Fireworks light up the skies in hundreds of cities as 12 midnight strikes around the globe.

Traditions that live on

There are a number of strange and interesting New Year's traditions around the world. In Scotland, New Year's Eve is called Hogmanay and 'first footing' remains a popular custom with people visiting friends' and neighbours' houses just after midnight. The first person who visits your house should bring a gift as this will mean good luck. In Spain, it is the custom to eat 12 grapes as the bells sound for midnight on 31 December. One grape is eaten at each sound of the bell and each grape is supposed to bring good luck for each month of the year ahead. In Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Venezuela and some other Central and South American countries, people wear special underwear of different colours on New Year's Eve. Red is supposed to be good for bringing love in the new year, while yellow is supposed to bring money.

Out with the old, in with the new

The new year is a perfect time to make a change for the better. The tradition of making New Year's resolutions is more common in the western hemisphere but also exists in the eastern hemisphere. This tradition involves a person making a commitment to change an unwanted habit or behaviour or setting a personal objective. Typical New Year's resolutions might be to give up smoking, eat healthier food, do more exercise, become more organised or laugh more – but really, a New Year's resolution can be almost anything. However, research suggests that many New Year's resolutions fail. Being realistic about the objectives you set and not making too many New Year's resolutions might help you to achieve success.

Discussion

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Upper intermediate: B2

Comments

thank you. well arranged.

I wonder how special the new year' day is. I just do daily routine.

As for me I love Christmas Eve and New Year. It's time of dreams and faith in good things. I'm not an amateur to spend this holyday at the noisy parties. I prefer tthe calm atmosphere with lights and nice decorations.

In Vietnam, we begin a new year according to the Lunar calendar, it's called Lunar New Year. This is an opportunity for people to visit their friend and relative, to eat, drink and enjoy. The first day of the new year, the children go to the neighbor's house to say the good things and adults give them red envelopes that mean good luck. We believe that children always bring to luck in the new year. During waiting the new year comes, we make sticky rice cake and gather together, talk and laugh. In my family, early morning of the new year, we wish each other and go to the pagoda to pray the better life, work, study and, love for the year ahead. It's really a great time to be near my parent because I work far from my home and can not stay home regularly.

Hi Kirk, i want to get knowledge about some website which provide thousand of difficult and long English comprehensions passage for practice for competitive exam. i am week on solving question based difficult passage. your grammar section is very good.
thank.

Hi ritesh46,

Early next year, we'll be releasinga series of Reading skills pages at different levels that might be just what you're looking for, so my first recommendation would be to keep an eye out for them. 

You could also do an internet search for 'practice IELTS reading comprehension' or 'practice CAE reading comprehension' -- I'm sure you could find some useful pages that way.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Actually , I think i have a different approach celebrating the new year with my little family , being a married man with 2 beautiful daughter differed my talent towards new year's eve celebrations , rather than partying & spending the night out , Nowadays i prefer to travel with my family & spending the new years eve in a new city. I try to make the occasion as private & as cozy as possible.

In our country, a special day is given as holiday to civil servants and students in schools in order to celebrate the new year. Family and friends visit each other to celebrate and say happy new year to themselves. Happy new year. May the almighty God facilitate all good for us during the new year. Thank you

I usually celebrate the first day of every year quietly at home and usually spend time with family in prayers and Thanksgiving to God for the opportunity of seeing a new year

Hello,
I would like to ask which of the following is correct
I am wishing you and your family the 2019 to be a healthy year OR
I wish you and your family 2019 to be a healthy year
Furthermore
I wish you and your family is correct?
Thank you in advance

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