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References: Life Sciences

In assignments, sources are referred to by the name of the author and the date of publication (the Harvard reference system), or by a number (the Vancouver reference system).

About 18% of references in the Life Sciences assignments follow the numerical Vancouver system. The rest follow the Harvard system.

Harvard references can be ‘integral’ or ‘non-integral’.

In integral references the author’s name (or an equivalent proper noun) is part of the sentence. For example:

Allyon and Azrin (1968) used a token economy with patients, giving them tokens for acts such as making their bed.


However, as Gabora (1998) states an increase in imitation should be preceded by mass variation.

In non-integral references proper names and dates are provided within brackets. For example:

DAD has been termed the morphological equivalent of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is associated with extensive pulmonary oedema (Moreau 2006).


It might be said that taken alone behaviour therapy is as effective as other popular therapies alone (Smithal. 1980) , but the best approach is a more diverse mixture of psychoanalytic theory, medical treatment and cognitive behaviour therapy.

For every million words in the Life Sciences assignments there are  about 253 integral citations and 369 non-integral citations.

References using the numerical Vancouver system often place the number within brackets, like this:

For patients with severe symptoms, surgery is the most effective treatment option for relieving symptoms [4].

Ibid and op. cit. do not occur in the Life Sciences assignments.

Reporting Verbs

Here are some verbs typically used for reporting other people's work in Life Sciences.

Reporting Verbs in Life Sciences Examples